**represents the functional relationship between total consumption and gross national income**.

How do you calculate aggregate expenditure equilibrium?

**aggregate expenditure equilibrium formula**.

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The consumption function, or Keynesian consumption function, is an economic formula that **represents the functional relationship between total consumption and gross national income**.

The consumption function is calculated by **first multiplying the marginal propensity to consume by disposable income**. The resulting product is then added to autonomous consumption to get total spending.

- GDP = C + G + I + NX.
- C = consumption or all private consumer spending within a country’s economy, including, durable goods (items with a lifespan greater than three years), non-durable goods (food & clothing), and services.

**C = 140 + 0.9 (Yd)**. This is the consumption function where 140 is autonomous consumption, 0.9 is the marginal propensity to consume, and Yd is disposable (i.e. after tax income). Yd = Y- T, where Y is national income (or GDP) and T = Tax Revenues = 0.3Y; note that 0.3 is the average income tax rate.

consumption = **autonomous consumption + marginal propensity to consume × disposable income**. A consumption function of this form implies that individuals divide additional income between consumption and saving.

consumption function, in economics, **the relationship between consumer spending and the various factors determining it**. At the household or family level, these factors may include income, wealth, expectations about the level and riskiness of future income or wealth, interest rates, age, education, and family size.

GDP can be determined via three primary methods. All three methods should yield the same figure when correctly calculated. These three approaches are often termed the **expenditure approach, the output (or production) approach, and the income approach**.

expenditure approach: The total spending on all final goods and services (Consumption goods and services (C) + Gross Investments (I) + Government Purchases (G) + (Exports (X) – Imports (M)) **GDP = C + I + G + (X-M)**.

The output approach to calculate GDP sums the gross value added of various sectors, plus taxes and less subsidies on products. The output of the economy is measured using gross value added.

The equation used to calculate the short-run aggregate supply is: **Y = Y* + α(P-Pe)**. In the equation, Y is the production of the economy, Y* is the natural level of production, coefficient is always positive, P is the price level, and Pe is the expected price level.

To calculate power consumption of any appliance, you have to **multiply it’s wattage by the number of hours it is being used (operational hours)**. For example, a 1000 watt electric iron running for one hour will consume (1000 watt X 1 hour) 1000 watt hour or 1 kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity.

- Factor # 1. Income Distribution:
- Factor # 2. The Rate of Interest:
- Factor # 3. Liquid Assets and Wealth:
- Factor # 4. Expected future income:
- Factor # 5. Sales Effort:
- Factor # 6. Capital Gains:
- Factor # 7. Consumer Credit:
- Factor # 8. Fiscal Policy:

Consumption function refers to the **standard equation of consumption** which defines the relationship between consumption and income where consumption value can be derived at each level with the use of income value. C= c+ bY where c=autonomous consumption, b= marginal propensity to consume, and Y= income.

Economists measure GDP by **taking the quantities of all goods and services produced, multiplying them by their prices, and summing the total**. Since GDP measures what is bought and sold in the economy, we can measure it either by the sum of what is purchased in the economy or what is produced.

The trade-to-GDP ratio is an indicator of the relative importance of international trade in the economy of a country. It is calculated by **dividing the aggregate value of imports and exports over a period by the gross domestic product for the same period**.

GDP is important because it gives information about the size of the economy and how an economy is performing. The growth rate of real GDP is often used as an indicator of the general health of the economy. In broad terms, an increase in real GDP is interpreted as a sign **that the economy is doing well**.

- C – Consumption Expenditure.
- I – Investment.
- G – Government Expenditure.
- X – Net Exports (Value of imports minus value of exports)
- Z – Net Income (Net income inflow from abroad minus net income outflow to foreign countries)

Most simply, the formula for the equilibrium level of income is when aggregate supply (AS) is equal to aggregate demand (AD), where AS = AD. Adding a little complexity, the formula becomes **Y = C + I + G**, where Y is aggregate income, C is consumption, I is investment expenditure, and G is government expenditure.

Examples of events that would increase aggregate supply include **an increase in population**, increased physical capital stock, and technological progress. The aggregate supply determines the extent to which the aggregate demand increases the output and prices of a good or service.

A few of the determinants are size of the labor force, input prices, technology, productivity, government regulations, business taxes and subsidies, and capital. As wages, energy, and raw material prices increase, **aggregate supply decreases, all else constant**.

In physical terms, aggregate supply refers to the total production of goods and services in an economy. … **Since the sum of factor incomes (rent, wages, interest and profit) at national level is called national income**, therefore, aggregate supply (AS), output and national income are same.

To get the number of kWh, you just **multiply the number of kW by the number of hours the appliance is used for**. For example, a device rated at 1500 W that’s on for 2.5 hours: 1500 ÷ 1000 = 1.5. That’s 1.5 kW.

- Factor # 1. Income: …
- Factor # 2. Distribution of Income: …
- Factor # 3. Financial Policies of Corporations: …
- Factor # 4. Changes in Expectations: …
- Factor # 5. Windfall Gains or Losses: …
- Factor # 6. Fiscal Policy: …
- Factor # 7. Demographic Factors: …
- Factor # 8.

Shifts of the consumption function can occur when **a change occurs in one of the autonomous consumption determinants (expectations, wealth, credit, taxes, price levels)**. For example, significant positive returns in the stock market can increase consumer wealth which would cause autonomous consumption to increase.

- The Motive of Precaution: …
- The Motive of Foresight: …
- The Motive of Calculation: …
- The Motive of Improvement: …
- The Motive of Independence: