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VAXCHORA (Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) is a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine suspension for oral administration containing the V. cholerae strain CVD 103-HgR.
The acid-labile vaccine is taken on an empty stomach (1 hour before or 1 hour after a meal). Vaccination should be completed at least 1 week prior to exposure. A booster of the same dose is recommended every 2 years for repeated exposure to cholera.
Cholera vaccine is a live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine which can be shed in stool for at least 7 days. Tiredness, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, and diarrhea can happen after cholera vaccine.
Cholera vaccine is usually given orally (by mouth) as a single dose. This vaccine is a powder that is mixed with water before you take it. You will receive this mixture in a clinic or other healthcare setting. This vaccine should be taken on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 1 hour after eating.
In adults, administer vaccine by IM injection into the deltoid muscle. In small children and infants, administer vaccine into the anterolateral zone of the thigh. The gluteal area should be avoided for vaccine injections, since administration in this area may result in lower neutralizing antibody titers.
The BCG vaccine protects against tuberculosis, which is also known as TB. TB is a serious infection that affects the lungs and sometimes other parts of the body, such as the brain (meningitis), bones, joints and kidneys.
The areas worst affected by cholera are in parts of Africa, South East Asia, South America and the Caribbean, so if you are visiting a destination in one of these areas, you may need the cholera vaccine. You may also need the cholera vaccine if you: are travelling where there is a cholera outbreak.
However, these parenteral cholera vaccines were discontinued by WHO in the early 1970s, because of the realization that the injectable cholera vaccine was more painful than protective.
It should be administered at least 10 days before potential cholera exposure, essentially 10 days prior to a trip. The vaccine is in a powdered form, which is reconstituted in water.
Tetanus Vaccine Ingredients The vaccines are made up of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis toxins that have been made nontoxic but they still have the ability to create an immune response. These vaccines do not contain live bacteria.
The FDA recently approved a single-dose live oral cholera vaccine called Vaxchora® (lyophilized CVD 103-HgR) in the United States. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to approve the vaccine for adults 18 – 64 years old who are traveling to an area of active cholera transmission.
Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV): Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol®. All three vaccines require two doses for full protection.
The intracutaneous (intradermal) route is satisfactory for persons 5 years of age and older, but higher levels of antibody may be achieved in children less than 5 years old by the subcutaneous or intramuscular routes. In areas where cholera is epidemic or endemic, booster doses should be given every six months.
Rotavirus, adenovirus, cholera vaccine, and oral typhoid vaccines are the only vaccines administered orally in the United States. Oral typhoid capsules should be administered as directed by the manufacturer.
Insert the needle at a 45° angle and slowly inject the entire contents of the diluent (1 mL) into the vaccine vial. Mix gently to avoid foaming. The white, freeze-dried vaccine dissolves to give a clear or slightly opaque solution.
Guidelines from the CDC recommend direct infiltration of HRIG, with as much of the dose as feasible, into all of the bite or wound sites to achieve this passive immunity. The remaining HRIG dose may be given intramuscularly at an anatomic site distant from the rabies vaccination site.
Human rabies immunoglobulin must always be used in combination with a rabies vaccine. Post-exposure prophylaxis consists of a regimen of one dose of immunoglobulin and full courses of rabies vaccination. Rabies immunoglobulin and the first dose of rabies vaccine should be given as soon as possible after exposure.
The 6-in-1 vaccine used in the UK gives protection against these six serious diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis), polio, Hib disease (Haemophilus influenzae type b) and hepatitis B.
National Immunization ScheduleVaccineWhen to giveRouteBCGAt birth or as early as possible till one year of ageIntra -dermalHepatitis B Birth doseAt birth or as early as possible within 24 hoursIntramuscularOPV Birth doseAt birth or as early as possible within the first 15 daysOral
The smallpox vaccine was given by a special technique that caused a blister which formed a scab and when the scab fell off, it left a scar (usually in the deltoid area of the upper arm). Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine: The BCG vaccine is not currently recommended for routine use in any Canadian population.
A multifaceted approach is key to control cholera, and to reduce deaths. A combination of surveillance, water, sanitation and hygiene, social mobilisation, treatment, and oral cholera vaccines are used.
The vaccine is given as a drink. For adults, 2 doses (given 1 to 6 weeks apart) can provide protection for up to 2 years.
A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with cholera bacteria. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person that contaminates water or food. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.
Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine developed an anticholera vaccine at the Pasteur Institute, Paris, in 1892. From the results of field trials in India from 1893 to 1896, he has been credited as having carried out the first effective prophylactic vaccination for a bacterial disease in man.
The live, attenuated viral vaccines currently available and routinely recommended in the United States are MMR, varicella, rotavirus, and influenza (intranasal). Other non-routinely recommended live vaccines include adenovirus vaccine (used by the military), typhoid vaccine (Ty21a), and Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG).
There are 2 vaccines that protect against chickenpox: The chickenpox vaccine protects children and adults from chickenpox. The MMRV vaccine protects children from measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox.
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) protects people against all three types of poliovirus. IPV does not contain live virus, so people who receive this vaccine do not shed the virus and cannot infect others, and the vaccine cannot cause disease.
YF-VAX (Yellow Fever Vaccine) in the US is supplied only to designated Yellow Fever Vaccination Centers authorized to issue certificates of Yellow Fever Vaccination.
Vaccination increases the levels of circulating antibodies against a certain antigen. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell (lymphocyte) called B cells. Each B cell can only produce antibodies against one specific epitope.