Is VOR Required for VFR? While VOR can be used as the primary source of navigation while flying under VFR, there is nothing that states it is required. … If you use a VOR, it must have been inspected and passed as operative within the preceding 30 days of the flight.
Is voter turnout increasing or decreasing over time? .

Is VOR check required for VFR?

The answer for VFR pilots is, well, no you’re not required to check your VOR receiver. … According to FAR 91.171, you may not conduct an IFR flight using VORs for navigation unless your VOR system has been checked within the preceding 30 days and found to be in limits.

Do VFR pilots use VOR?

VORs are central instruments for both VFR and IFR flying. A VOR is used in VFR flight often to facilitate long distance navigation or find relative position with respect to various VORs/Airports around the aircraft.

Are VOR checks still required?

VOR Checks. If you’re planning to use your VOR receiver, the receiver must be checked within the preceding 30 days of the IFR flight (14 CFR 91.171). This goes for every IFR certified airplane, regardless of size.

What is required for VFR?

For VFR flight during the day, the following in- struments and equipment are required: (1) Airspeed indicator. (2) Altimeter. (3) Magnetic direction indicator.

What is a VOT VOR check?

VOR Receiver Check. a. The FAA VOR test facility (VOT) transmits a test signal which provides users a convenient means to determine the operational status and accuracy of a VOR receiver while on the ground where a VOT is located.

When using a vot to check the accuracy of a VOR?

To use the VOT, tune to the appropriate frequency and center the CDI. The omni-bearing selector should read 0° with a FROM indication, or 180° with a TO indication. The allowable error is ±4°. VOR receiver checkpoints are listed in the A/FD.


Many pilots use GPS as an aid to visual flight rules (VFR) navigation. The key word is “aid,” because VFR means seeing the terrain well enough to confirm your position on a map.

Do airlines still use VOR?

Navaids like VORs and NDBs remain largely as a backup and we rarely use them. In airliners, we use the GPS most of the times. It is the primary form of navigation. Navaids like VORs and NDBs remain largely as a backup and we rarely use them.

Do airlines fly VFR or IFR?

Generally the airlines operating procedures will only permit IFR operation. Occasionally non-revenue flights for aircraft positioning etc, will operate VFR for expediency.

What are the limitations of the VOR?

VORs are limited to line-of-sight. Obstacles, terrain, and even the slope of the earth interfere with VOR signals. There’s no restriction on how many airplanes can use a single VOR simultaneously. There are three classes of VORs: Terminal (T), Low (L), and High (H).

Where are VFR on top operations prohibited?

VFR-on-top is not permitted in certain airspace areas, such as Class A airspace, certain restricted areas, etc. Consequently, IFR flights operating VFR-on-top will avoid such airspace.

Can you check a VOR with a GPS?

In the US, a GPS may substitute for a VOR, ADF, or DME. The only requirement for VOR IFR navigation in the US is when flying a VOR approach, between the FAF and MAP.

What is VS0 and VS1?

VS0 means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration. VS1 means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed obtained in a specific configuration. VSR means reference stall speed.

Can VFR fly at night?

There’s no difference between flying in daylight and flying at night—except you can’t see anything. Even if you haven’t flown at night for year or more, you’re perfectly legal to blast off solo at midnight in a single-engine airplane under an overcast with three miles of drizzly visibility. …

Is pitot heat required for VFR?

“If certification for instrument flight rules or flight in icing conditions is requested, each airspeed system must have a heated pitot tube or an equivalent means of preventing malfunction due to icing.”

How do you test VOR?

VOR is generally tested by turning the patient’s head on their long axis and observing for the doll’s eyes response (DOLL). The eyes deviate opposite to the direction of head rotation. A possibly related maneuver has been used in infants as a neurologic test.

When using a vot to check the accuracy of a VOR receiver with the CDI centered?

To use the VOT service, tune in to the VOT frequency (108.0-117.95 MHz) on the VOR receiver. With the CDI centered, the OBS should read 0° with the TO/FROM indication showing FROM, or the OBS should read 180° with the TO/FROM indication showing TO.

What is reverse sensing VOR?

In “reverse sensing,” the instrument is displaying exactly what you’re telling it to display. It takes some effort from the pilot to not become “reversed.” Where pilots get confused and think that the instrument is reversed is when the OBS is set to the reciprocal of the course they want to fly.

Does RNAV use VOR?

Area navigation (RNAV) equipment includes VOR/DME, LORAN, GPS, and inertial navigation systems (INS). … Some aircraft may have equipment that allows input from more than one RNAV source, thereby providing a very accurate and reliable navigation source.

How many satellites are required for RAIM?

Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) provides integrity monitoring of GPS for aviation applications. In order for a GPS receiver to perform RAIM or fault detection (FD) function, a minimum of five visible satellites with satisfactory geometry must be visible to it.

What is VFR condition?

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) are the rules that govern the operation of aircraft in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) (conditions in which flight solely by visual reference is possible).

What is replacing VOR?

When a VOR is decommissioned, it is replaced with a GPS based intersection and GPS based airways. For most of us, the effect will be minimal. Only the rare GA aircraft that is still navigating solely by VORs will see an impact—and that is still years away.

Are Victor Airways for VFR?

It is generally safe for VFR pilots to use Victor Airways, and that is why they are included on VFR Sectionals and WACs. When en route away from terminal areas, there will not be much competing traffic. For those not having GPS, Victor Airways can be better during night VFR over mountainous terrain.

Do airliners use GPS?

Yes, but while GPS (Global Positioning System) is a staple of modern life, the world’s air traffic control network is still almost entirely radar-based. Aircraft use GPS to show pilots their position on a map, but this data is not usually shared with air traffic control.

Can you use autopilot in VFR?

Most definitely VFR pilots can use autopilot. It obviously gets more advantageous in IFR scenarios to lighten the load a little when flying approaches but even then on your IFR checkride your DPE won’t let you fly the autopilot – you’ll have to do it by hand.

Can private jets fly VFR?

If you hold a private pilot certificate without instrument privileges then your only option is to fly VFR. If you find yourself in a situation where the weather is below VFR minimums then you can file a SVFR (special visual flight referencing) flight plan, which allows you to fly VFR with less weather minimums.

What is VOR in aviation?

Description. The Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range (VOR) is a ground-based electronic system that provides azimuth information for high and low altitude routes and airport approaches.

What are the 3 types of VOR?

There are three types of VOR navigational stations: VOR (just the VOR), VOR-DME (VOR plus distance measuring equipment), and vortac (VOR plus the military’s tactical air navigation system). Each VOR station can further be classified according to its range – terminal, low altitude, or high altitude.

How do VOR works?

VORs work on the principle of the phase difference in two radio signals. … That’s how a VOR works. A rotating directional signal is broadcast from the VOR, while a second (omnidirectional) signal is broadcast only when the rotating signal passes north.

How sensitive is a VOR?

In Figure 3A, the VOR has a six degree sensitivity error. In other words, if you? re flying with a two dot (4 degree) needle deflection, you may actually be 10 degrees off course.

How do I file a VFR-on-top?

You can request it on the ground, usually from clearance or ground control at a towered airport. Simply ask for an IFR climb to VFR-on-top. The controller will need to know your type aircraft and direction of flight. The clearance will usually have a clearance limit of a nearby VOR or other navaid.

Is VFR-on-top IMC?

According to the FAA’s Instrument Flying Handbook (IFH), “pilots on IFR flight plans operating in VFR weather conditions may request VFR-on-top in lieu of an assigned altitude. … A “maintain VFR-on-top” clearance doesn’t restrict you to operating only above an IMC layer, either.

Can a VFR pilot fly VFR-on-top?

“The short answer is yes. You may legally fly on top as long as you can maintain the appropriate VFR cloud clearances. … VFR-on-top is conducted by an instrument-rated pilot on an IFR flight plan. It allows the pilot to change altitudes, provided VFR cloud clearances are maintained.

What does VOR stand for?

Definition. VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range (VOR) is defined as VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range, an aircraft navigation system operating in the VHF band.

What are y routes in aviation?

Y Routes are offshore RNAV routes. Aircraft flying the Y-routes must be equipped with GNSS and meet RNAV 2 performance requirements. Transition to an RNAV-based route structure reduces the dependency on ground-based navigational systems, improving the operational efficiencies of the National Airspace System.

What is a tango route?

RNAV terminal transition routes, referred to as Tango or “T” routes, allow Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped, instrument flight rules (IFR) operations to efficiently fly around or through Class B and Class C airspace areas. Routes have been established for Cincinnati, Charlotte, and Jacksonville thus far.

What is V1 and V2?

A: V1 is the speed by which time the decision to continue flight if an engine fails has been made. … V2 is the speed at which the airplane will climb in the event of an engine failure. It is known as the takeoff safety speed.

What is VX speed?

VX is the speed at which the airplane achieves the greatest gain in altitude for a given distance over the ground. It is usually slightly less than VY, which is the greatest gain in altitude per unit of time. The specific speeds to be used for a given airplane are stated in the FAA-approved AFM/POH.

What is the VSO of a Cessna 172?

BEST GLIDE SPEED65 KIASStall in Landing ConfigurationVso33 KIASStall in Cruise ConfigurationVs144 KIASRotate SpeedVr55 KIASBest Angle of ClimbVx60 KIAS