The structures involved in deglutition include the tongue, hard and soft palate, pharyngeal muscles, esophagus, and gastroesophageal junction. Coordination of swallowing is controlled by the trigeminal (CN V), facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), vagus (X), and hypoglossal (CN XII) nerves and their nuclei.
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What anatomical structures are involved in the voluntary and involuntary phases of swallowing?

Swallowing is divided into three stages: Oral phase – voluntary, movement of the bolus from the oral cavity into the oropharynx. Pharyngeal phase – involuntary, movement of the bolus from the oropharynx into the esophagus. Esophageal phase – involuntary, movement of the bolus through the esophagus and into the stomach.

What structure initiates swallowing?

Swallowing is initiated by sensory impulses transmitted as a result of stimulation of receptors on the fauces, tonsils, soft palate, base of the tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall.

What is responsible for swallowing?

Swallowing occurs in three sequential phases, all requiring the careful coordination of muscles in the mouth, pharynx (your throat), larynx (your voice box), and esophagus (the tube that carries food from your throat to your stomach). … The following cranial nerves are involved in swallowing: Trigeminal (cranial nerve V)

What muscles are responsible for swallowing?

These muscles include the omohyoid, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid muscles (ansa cervicalis), and the thyrohyoid muscle (CN XII). [17] The longitudinal pharyngeal muscles function to condense and expand the pharynx as well as help elevate the pharynx and larynx during swallowing.

What are the four phases of swallowing?

  • The Pre-oral Phase. – Starts with the anticipation of food being introduced into the mouth – Salivation is triggered by the sight and smell of food (as well as hunger)
  • The Oral Phase. …
  • The Pharyngeal Phase. …
  • The Oesophageal Phase.
What type of receptor is activated during swallowing?

Swallowing is a highly regulated activity. Normally, it is activated by peripheral receptors located on structures in the posterior part of the oral cavity and oropharynx that are stimulated as the food bolus is pushed into the oropharynx.

What initiates the swallowing reflex?

The reflex is initiated by touch receptors in the pharynx as a bolus of food is pushed to the back of the mouth by the tongue, or by stimulation of the palate (palatal reflex). Swallowing is a complex mechanism using both skeletal muscle (tongue) and smooth muscles of the pharynx and esophagus.

Where is the swallowing center located quizlet?

Swallowing (voluntary, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages) is a reflex response initiated by a voluntary action and regulated by the swallowing center in the medulla of the brain.

Where are the swallowing Center located?

The swallowing center is located in the floor of the fourth ventricle and adjacent regions. There are many identifiable nuclei, clusters of nerve cells, in this area.

Which cranial nerve involves swallowing?

The glossopharyngeal nerve enervates muscles involved in swallowing and taste.

What happens during swallowing quizlet?

During swallowing, the muscles of the soft palate and uvula close off the nasal cavity to prevent food frm entering. The Lateral pterygoids contract and protrude the mandible, by moving the condyles anteriorly and inferiorly along the slopes of the right and left articular eminences of the tempoal bone.

Is larynx involved in swallowing?

Your larynx is the part of your throat that is also known as your voice box. Before you swallow, you chew your food to an appropriate size, shape, and consistency. When you swallow, this material passes through your mouth and a part of your throat called the pharynx.

What is the physiology of swallowing?

The process of swallowing, also known as deglutition, involves the movement of substances from the mouth (oral cavity) to the stomach via the pharynx and esophagus.

What structure is the throat?

pharynx, (Greek: “throat”) cone-shaped passageway leading from the oral and nasal cavities in the head to the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx chamber serves both respiratory and digestive functions.

What happens during the process of swallowing?

The teeth grind and chop food into tiny pieces while the glands in the mouth moisten it with saliva. Then the tongue pushes the moistened food, or bolus, to the back of the throat and down into the esophagus, which leads to the stomach.

What are the major muscles involved in the swallowing and breathing of toads?

The two main muscles for determining palatal position are the levator veli palatini and the palatoglossus. Both muscles are active during oral and nasal breathing. However, the levator palatini is more active during oral breathing and the palatoglossus during nasal breathing [19].

How do you stimulate swallowing?

  1. Inhale and hold your breath very tightly. …
  2. Pretend to gargle while holding your tongue back as far as possible. …
  3. Pretend to yawn while holding your tongue back as far as possible. …
  4. Do a dry swallow, squeezing all of your swallowing muscles as tightly as you can.
What are the structures that prevent aspiration?

The important structures that protect against aspiration include the aerodigestive apparatus: pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, glottis and vocal cords, and airway. There are several stimulatory reflexes involving the pharynx, esophagus, and larynx that prevent pulmonary aspiration.

What initiates the swallowing reflex quizlet?

The muscles of the mouth and tongue mix the food with saliva and create a bolus or food that the tongue muscles move toward the oropharynx. Bolus comes in contact with sensory receptors around the pharynx and the posterior pharyngeal wall, initiating the involuntary swallowing reflex.

What are the 3 structures that increase the surface area of the small intestine?

To increase the efficiency of nutrient absorption, the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine have several unique features including circular folds, villi, and microvilli. These features increase the absorptive surface area of the small intestine more than 600-fold.

Which of the following is the accessory organ of digestion responsible for producing bile?

The liver is one of the largest organs in the body and it is continuously producing bile. This yellowish-brown fluid aids chemical digestion by emulsifying fats in the duodenum.

Which of the following organs receives digested food directly from the small intestine?

The ileum is the last and longest part of the small intestine. The ileum absorbs nutrients from digested food and empties the waste into the large intestine.

Which of the following is not an accessory organ of digestion?

The salivary glands, gallbladder, and pancreas are all accessory organs of digestion, meaning the only non-accessory organ of digestion is the cecum,…

What are the two brainstem structures involved in a swallow?

Figure 5: Diagram of the oropharyngeal and esophageal circuits. The oropharyngeal circuit includes two main groups of brainstem neurons: a dorsal swallowing group (DSG) located within the NTS, and a ventral swallowing group (VSG) located in the ventrolateral medulla.

How does the medulla regulate swallowing?

Swallowing movements are produced by a central pattern generator located in the medulla oblongata. … One group is located within the dorsal medulla and contains the generator neurons involved in triggering, shaping, and timing the sequential or rhythmic swallowing pattern.

Which lobe of the cerebrum is involved with the coordination of skeletal muscle movement?

Cerebellum: The cerebellum, also known as the little brain, is responsible for smooth, coordinated voluntary movements. It subdivides into three lobes: the anterior, posterior, and flocculonodular lobes.

Does vagus nerve affect swallowing?

The result is difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) and speaking (dysphonia). The vagus nerve has several important branches, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Which cranial nerve is not involved in swallowing?

Cranial nerveSensory innervationCN IX glossopharyngealReceives input from tonsils, pharynx, posterior tongue Supplies taste to the posterior one-third of the tongueCN X vagusSensation to the pharynx, larynx, tracheaCN XI accessoryNo sensory componentCN XII hypoglossalNo sensory component

Does the central nervous system control swallowing?

Central Nervous System Control of the Laryngeal Musculature in the Brain Stem. Innervation of the laryngeal muscles is essential for both voice and swallowing. For voice, both vocal folds must be moved to the midline so they can be set into vibration by airflow from the lungs.

Which process occurs during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing quizlet?

During the pharyngeal phase, the vestibular folds and vocal cords close, and the epiglottis (ep-i-glot′is; on the glottis) is tipped posteriorly so that the epiglottic cartilage covers the opening into the larynx, and the larynx is elevated. These movements prevent food from passing into the larynx.

Where is the esophagus located quizlet?

Where is the esophagus located? It is located mostly in the thoracic cage with the terminal portion in the abdomen. While in the thorax it lies to the right of the aorta, but at t-7 it deviates to the left and goes through esophageal hiatus at t-10 to meet with the stomach.

What does the esophagus secrete?

Esophageal glands secrete mucus that lubricates the bolus and reduces friction. When the bolus nears the stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing the bolus to pass into the stomach.

How is the pharynx involved in swallowing?

The mouth closes, and the soft portion of the roof of the mouth (soft palate) rises so that the passageway between the nasal and oral cavities is closed off. The tongue rolls backward, propelling food into the oral pharynx, a chamber behind the mouth that functions to transport food and air.

Is soft palate involved in swallowing?

The soft palate serves to elevate the nasopharynx, effectively closing the communication from the oropharynx to the nasopharynx. The soft palate is comprised of five muscles that play essential roles in breathing, phonation, and swallowing.

Why is the pharynx considered essential to the process of swallowing?

The pharynx is the body cavity that connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx and esophagus. … For the digestive system, its muscular walls function in the process of swallowing, and it serves as a pathway for the movement of food from the mouth to the esophagus.

What anatomical structures are involved in the voluntary and involuntary phases of swallowing?

Swallowing is divided into three stages: Oral phase – voluntary, movement of the bolus from the oral cavity into the oropharynx. Pharyngeal phase – involuntary, movement of the bolus from the oropharynx into the esophagus. Esophageal phase – involuntary, movement of the bolus through the esophagus and into the stomach.