What are the 8 types of cases where federal courts have jurisdiction? list three example cases that would probably be heard in federal court..
To grasp the entirety of the Universe we divide Big History into eight “thresholds.” You may consider a threshold a transition point. It’s an event that creates something completely new.
Big History provides a sort of sketch map of the history of the Universe, and thresholds provide a sketch map of big history. They frame the story and help you navigate through it.
These phenomena are more complex because they have more parts. Christian created the term “thresholds of increasing complexity.” A threshold refers to a key moment when everything changes. For Christian, a threshold of increasing complexity is a time when new complex phenomena emerged.
The Goldilocks Zone refers to the habitable zone around a star where the temperature is just right – not too hot and not too cold – for liquid water to exist on an planet. Liquid water is essential for life as we know it.
In his talk, David Christian explains the three Goldilocks Conditions for life. These are the right amount of energy, diverse chemical elements and liquids. Two of these conditions can be implemented for creativity and talent.
What does complexity mean, and why is it so important?
D.C: Threshold 7 is all about the appearance of the powerful cluster of technologies we describe as “agriculture.” They appeared gradually, over many thousands of years, but first began to transform human societies towards the end of the last ice age, a little more than 10,000 years ago.
THRESHOLD MOMENTS are those turning points in your life when you faced a difficult decision, life event or a surprising pivot which changed your life forever. Your standing at the cross roads- literally –trying to decide which way to go.
Thresholds, by replacing checkpoints that control access through interdictions or everyday “rites of passage”, provide the ground for a possible solidarity between different people allowed to regain control over their lives.
It is argued that complexity, rather than fitness or organization, is the quantity whose increase gives a direction to evolution. The increase in complexity is shown to be a consequence of the process by which a self- organizing system optimizes its organization with respect to a locally defined fitness potential.
Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which typically acts to streamline genomes, the complexity of an organism increases by a process called constructive neutral evolution.
If the star is big enough to fuse hydrogen atoms into helium, it will enter the phase that our Sun is in, called the main sequence phase. A star will enjoy most of its life in the main sequence phase.
When galaxies get close, gravity pulls them together, causing a collision. Following a collision, stars and other material begin settling into orbits around a new galactic core. Millions or even billions of years may pass before galaxies merge completely into a single larger galaxy.
The first elements — hydrogen and helium — couldn’t form until the universe had cooled enough to allow their nuclei to capture electrons (right), about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Q: How did the first chemical element appear in the universe?
The Goldilocks principle is named by analogy to the children’s story “The Three Bears”, in which a young girl named Goldilocks tastes three different bowls of porridge and finds she prefers porridge that is neither too hot nor too cold, but has just the right temperature.
We found that Papa Bear’s porridge lost heat faster than Baby Bear’s porridge did! So, Goldilocks SHOULD have said, “Papa Bear’s porridge was too cold! Baby Bear’s porridge was too hot! And Mama Bear’s porridge was just right.”
Earth has a number of nicknames, including the Blue Planet, Gaia, Terra, and “the world” – which reflects its centrality to the creation stories of every single human culture that has ever existed. But the most remarkable thing about our planet is its diversity.
any place or point of entering or beginning: the threshold of a new career. Also called limen. Psychology, Physiology. the point at which a stimulus is of sufficient intensity to begin to produce an effect: the threshold of consciousness; a low threshold of pain.
Threshold 7 looks at the development of agriculture, and how it led to the formation of cities and writing.
What are the ingredients for the 7th Threshold? Increasingly dense human communities and knowledge about the environments. What are the Goldilocks conditions for Threshold 7? warmer climate, competition for resources.
- Threshold 1—Origins of Big Bang Cosmology. …
- Threshold 2—The First Stars and Galaxies. …
- Threshold 3—Making Chemical Elements. …
- Threshold 4—The Earth and the Solar System. …
- Threshold 5—Life. …
- Threshold 6—What Makes Humans Different? …
- Threshold 7—Agriculture. …
- Threshold 8—The Modern Revolution.
Emergent Properties: Metabolism (capacity to extract energy); reproduction (ability to copy themselves almost perfectly); adaptation (slow change and appearance of new forms through natural selection).
The total complexity of the universe is increasing, due to the inevitable march of entropy (or information), which is exactly the measure of complexity. … The amount of data it would take to accurately describe the universe as it is now utterly dwarfs the amount that it would take to describe the early universe.
Thresholds of significance are key elements of any CEQA document, as the level at which thresholds are established can determine whether the impacts of a project are deemed significant (thus requiring mitigation) or less than significant (thus not requiring mitigation).
Emergent complexity deals with the nature of open, dynamic complexsystems – how order emerges spontaneously out of chaos, how larger andmore complex patterns are replaced by smaller and less complex ones,how one pattern emerges locally and when and how it spreads throughouta system to replace another more dominant one.
It can be defined as an emergent, or complex, system. It results from this definition that neither the properties of an integrated system, nor those of a complex system can be reduced to the properties of their component sub-systems.
Level of complexity is a measure, which describes characteristics of organizational or social system. In management we can distinguish following levels of system complexity: complicated system (e.g. machine, computer) random system (market, customer behaviour, chaotic changes in financial markets)
The microscopic water flies (dafnia pulex) is the most complex organism on earth currently known. It’s the firsy ever crustecean to have ever its genome sequence. What is so special about it? Well, it has, on average, around 31,000 genes, which is about 25% more than ours.
- It responds to the environment.
- It grows and develops.
- It produces offspring.
- It maintains homeostasis.
- It has complex chemistry.
- It consists of cells.
The so-called C-Value Paradox refers to the observation that genome size does not uniformly increase with respect to perceived complexity of organisms, for example vertebrate with respect to invertebrate animals, or “lower” versus “higher” vertebrate animals (red box).
The largest known star in the universe is UY Scuti, a hypergiant with a radius around 1,700 times larger than the sun. And it’s not alone in dwarfing Earth’s dominant star.
Some types of stars expire with titanic explosions, called supernovae. When a star like the Sun dies, it casts its outer layers into space, leaving its hot, dense core to cool over the eons. … A supernova can shine as brightly as an entire galaxy of billions of “normal” stars.
When our Sun runs out of hydrogen fuel in the core, it will contract and heat up to a sufficient degree that helium fusion can begin. … It will end composed of carbon and oxygen, with the lighter (outer) hydrogen and helium layers blown off. This occurs for all stars between about 40% and 800% the Sun’s mass.
The galaxy known as NGC 6240 is known as an irregular galaxy due to its particular shape. Until now, astronomers have assumed that it was formed by the collision of two smaller galaxies and therefore contains two black holes in its core.
Earth is in the second largest galaxy of the Local Group – a galaxy called the Milky Way. The Milky Way is a large spiral galaxy. Earth is located in one of the spiral arms of the Milky Way (called the Orion Arm) which lies about two-thirds of the way out from the center of the Galaxy.
These new galaxies are relatively close to us, ranging from two to four billion light-years away. … They may be as young as 100 million to one billion years old. The Milky Way is approximately 10 billion years old.