What are two career clusters? what are career clusters.
Grown throughout the southeastern U.S., yellow pine is by far the strongest softwood on our list. It has the highest bending strength & compression strength of any softwood seen throughout North America. And it’s high strength-to-weight ratio makes it popular for building trusses and joists.
Nominal Dimension The nicknames for lumber sizes. Softwood dimensions give thickness and width, as in 2×4 (“two-by-four”) or 1×8. Hardwood dimensions give only thickness, expressed as a fraction over 4, as in 4/4 (“four-quarter”) for 1 inch, or 12/4 for 3 inches.
“Dimensional” lumber is the general name for framing lumber. … In the past, when a timber was called a 2×4 [or “two-by-four”], it actually measured 2 inches by 4 inches. Now, most timber is milled and planed to give it a little more of a finished look, and a little more of a consistent size and profile.
The most popular softwoods are cedar, fir, pine and spruce. Softwoods are faster growing and have straighter grain, making them good for framing, construction and outdoor projects. Lumber is available in a variety of sizes and products.
Grade No. 2 tends to be the best bet as it is a solid framing lumber that is also less expensive without looking as rough as a grade.
A 2×4 can hold up to 40 pounds or 300 pounds when laying on its edge without sagging when laying horizontally. Several factors can lower or increase a 2x4s strength, including wood species, lumber grade, and moisture content.
Pine and fir are two softwood species harvested in the Northern Hemisphere. They are both widely used in the building industry to provide lumber and plywood for homes and framed structures as well as to provide wood for cabinets and woodworking projects.
The most commonly used lumber, structural lumber, are the 2-foot x 4-foot and 4-foot x 4-foot boards used in everyday DIY and construction projects. Framing and structural lumber follows standard building dimensions (thickness and width). Standard dimensions allow for faster building as less cutting is needed on site.
|Density||Typically harder (but not always)||Usually softer (but not always)|
|Colour||Generally dark||Almost always light|
|Structure||Lower sap||Higher sap|
The ubiquitous lumber product known as the 2×4 does not, in fact, measure two inches thick by four inches wide. The naming of this building material is the result of compromise between forestry technology, species’ properties, forest composition, transportation efficiency, construction speed, and price competition.
A 2×4 is actually 3-½ inches by 1-½ inches.
So, a “4/4” board is four quarters, or 1 inch thick, an “8/4” board is eight quarters, or 2 inches thick, a “10/4” board is ten quarters, or 2.5 inches thick, etc. Board Foot: Rough sawn lumber is usually sold by the “board foot” (bd. ft.).
Lumber grades are a standardized way to judge the quality of a wood or piece of lumber. Both softwood and hardwood have separate grading scales. Softwood specifically has a larger variety of grading options depending on the intended application for the lumber.
Machine Evaluated Lumber (MEL) Visual grading is performed by qualified graders in the mill. These graders sort each piece of lumber into various grades based on visual characteristics known to affect lumber strength and stiffness, such as knot size and slope-of-grain.
Oak. Oak is one of the strongest and the hardest woods available. Its tough characteristic makes it ideal for the structure of buildings and it is a favourite for builders. This wood is high quality, resistant to moisture, and has a unique appearance that adds character to a home.
White pine, fir, spruce and cedar are excellent softwood choices for building a log home. Maple, walnut, ash, birch and elm are all harvested hardwoods, suitable for lumber for home construction.
To Choose the Best Lumber for Framing, Consider Treated or Manufactured Wood. Redwood or cedar hold up to the elements, but a less expensive option might be to go with pressure-treated wood that is resistant to water, insects, and rot. This is easier to maintain, too, and can extend the longevity of your structure.
Bearing capacity is a function of the footprint area of all the studs in a wall. … The total bearing area of three 2x4s is 15 3/4 square inches; two 2x6s have a bearing area of 16 square inches. In bending, however, such as from a wind load, a 2×6 wall is considerably stronger.
When used vertically, 4x4s are stronger than two 2x4s. However, if you need a horizontal surface, two 2x4s will be stronger than one 4×4. A 4×4 should not be used horizontally for anything structural. Always be sure that you’re using the proper size and strength of lumber.
In short, no real builder would use 2×4’s as floor joists. 4×2 timber floor joists on the ground floor have been used for decades but should be no more than 16 inch or 400 mm centres and be supported at no more than 2 metre centres , 6ft or 1.8 m is preferable and practical .
Odor profile: Fir absolute is a sweet balsamic, aromatic green spicy fragrance.
Softwoods have no visible pores, which means that they don’t display the prominent grain seen in hardwoods. … You can identify most hardwoods due to their broad leaves, while softwoods usually have needles and cones. Examples of softwood trees include: Pine.
Hardwood comes from trees, which lose their leaves in the winter. Trees such as Ash, Beech and Oak etc. … Softwood trees include Pine, Larch, Spruce etc..
Australian Buloke – 5,060 IBF An ironwood tree that is native to Australia, this wood comes from a species of tree occurring across most of Eastern and Southern Australia. Known as the hardest wood in the world, this particular type has a Janka hardness of 5,060 lbf.
#1 Grade: When appearance becomes more of a factor, #1 Grade will contain smaller, fewer, sound, tight knots and have less wane than found in #2 Grade. … While it can have wane similar to that found in #1 Grade, it has tighter growth rings and contains smaller and fewer knots.
Hardwoods are oftentimes denser than softwoods. … For instance, softwood is used for framing lumber, such as studs, joists, and beams. It is also used for trim and finish components such as doors or windows. It can also be used for engineered products, like plywood, OSB, and paper.
The most common types of hardwoods include Oak, Teak, Sapele, Iroko and Meranti. As these grow at a much slower rate and require longer drying times, these factors drive up the cost of the wood. Hardwoods tend to be much more resilient than softwoods and are often reserved for projects that require maximum durability.
Being a hard wood, mango’s hardness is measured to be 1,070 pounds per foot (4,780 Newtons) on the Janka Hardness Scale, making it between Mahogany and Oak in terms of hardness. It is rated as moderately durable to perishable to rot, so outdoor use without an external protective finish is not recommended.
Is Elm A Hardwood? Elm wood has a Janka Hardness rating of 830 and is classified as a “soft hardwood,” meaning it’s quite durable and tough, but it is softer than other hardwoods. Elm’s interlocked grain adds to its toughness and makes it more resistant to splitting.
A mill allows carpenters to cut timber into manageable, usable pieces. There are many businesses that specialize in this task, which are also referred to as mills. Mills cut lumber, molding and other wood products such as doors and pallets.
2×4 have rounded edges as it’s very beneficial to the wood itself and those working with it. They reduce the number of injuries like unwanted splinters during the handling and manufacturing process and also ensure that the lumber stays looking its best all throughout until the customer sees it.
Typically, that rough cut is smaller than the nominal dimensions because modern technology makes it possible to use the logs more efficiently. For example, a “2×4” board historically started out as a green, rough board actually 2 by 4 inches (51 mm × 102 mm).
Through the drying process, the boards naturally shrink, as moisture leaves the beams. The real shrinkage, however, comes when the “rough-sawn material” is sent to a planer, which rubs the surface of the wood down into the smooth shapes you can purchase at a hardware store.
The simple reason why 2×4 is not 2 inches by 4 inches is that lumber mills trim off rough or warped surfaces of a 2×4 to give it a more polished and finished look. By planning the lumber on all four sides, the original 2×4 is now reduced to 1 ½ inches by 3 1/2 inches.
These project panels help eliminate waste, cut costs, and are easier to transport than full-size panels. The most common thickness of plywood is 1/2-inch, but plywood thickness can range from 1/8-inch to 3/4-inches.
Lumber Sizes. A “quarter” system is commonly used in the hardwood lumber industry when referring to thickness. 4/4 refers to a 1 inch thick board, 6/4 is 1-1/2 inch, 8/4 is 2 inches, and so on. Quarter Size.
S4S stands for “surfaced on 4 sides”, meaning that the material is finished on all four sides. Dimensional lumber is commonly S4S. S4S finished lumber and dimensional lumber are labeled according to nominal size, or the size of the rough board before it was planed smooth.
4/4 (four-quarter) lumber is 1″ thick when rough sawn. When 4/4 lumber is planed, it is typically finished at 13/16″ thick. 5/4 (five-quarter) lumber is 1.25″ thick when rough sawn. When 5/4 lumber is planed, typically it is finished at 1.063″ thick.
Structural lumber (including dimension lumber) is visually and/or mechanically (MSR) graded for its strength and physical working properties (appearance is secondary, unless specified). Basic end-use classifications are organized by size classifications and performance capabilities.
F11 – The stress grade classification of a piece of timber for structural purposes (to the relevant Australian Standard) to indicate its characteristic structural properties and stiffness.