What causes unilateral pleural effusion? unilateral vs bilateral pleural effusion causes.
A variance is usually considered favorable if it improves net income and unfavorable if it decreases income. Therefore, when actual revenues exceed budgeted amounts, the resulting variance is favorable. When actual revenues fall short of budgeted amounts, the variance is unfavorable.
- Change in price of indirect material and labor.
- Non-availability of specified services.
- Change in efficiency in use of services.
- Over or under utilization of services.
- Change in production methods.
- Improper use of available facilities.
- Ineffective control in spending.
Theft of materials, spoilage and damage to materials caused by workers, worker errors or insufficiently trained workers on a production line or in a service industry are reasons for unfavorable direct material efficiency variances.
We express variances in terms of FAVORABLE or UNFAVORABLE and negative is not always bad or unfavorable and positive is not always good or favorable. Keep these in mind: When actual materials are more than standard (or budgeted), we have an UNFAVORABLE variance.
- Errors by the creators of the budget can occur when the budget is being compiled. …
- Changing business conditions, including changes in the overall economy or global trade, can cause budget variances.
For example, if your budgeted expenses were $200,000 but your actual costs were $250,000, your unfavorable variance would be $50,000 or 25 percent. Often budget variances can be eliminated by analyzing your expenses and allocating an expensed item to another budget line.
Question: Only Unfavorable Variances Should Be Investigated, If Substantial, To Determine Their Causes. A Favorable Variance Of Direct Materials Cost Occurs When The Actual Direct Materials Cost Incurred Is More Than The Standard Direct Materials Cost Determined.
- Variable cost variances. Direct material variances. Direct labour variances. Variable production overhead variances.
- Fixed production overhead variances.
- Sales variances.
The direct materials price variance is caused by paying too much or too little for material. The direct materials quantity variance is caused by using too much or too little material.
- Material cost variance = (Standard quality for actual output x Standard price) – (Actual quantity x Actual price) …
- Material price variance = Actual quantity (Standard price – Actual price) …
- Material quantity = Standard price (Standard quantity – Actual quantity)
Variances should be reported to appropriate levels of management as soon as possible. The principle of “management by exception” may be used with variance reports.
Idle time variance is therefore always described as an ‘adverse’ variance.
Are all adverse variances bad news? … An adverse variance might result from something that is good that has happened in the business. For example, a budget statement might show higher production costs than budget (adverse variance).
Option A: Material quantity variance is unfavorably affected by the poorly trained workers as poorly trained workers are not efficient. But labor rate variance is arising due to incorrect supervision of the workers.
Cutting expenses, avoiding new expenditures and reallocating assets or manpower are some methods to closing the variance. Continue to compare the budget to actual numbers until the budget variance is minimal.