The glossopharyngeal nerve enervates muscles involved in swallowing and taste. Lesions of the ninth nerve result in difficulty swallowing and disturbance of taste.
Information from the swallowing center then is conveyed back to the muscles that help in swallowing through trigeminal (V), facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), and hypoglossal (XII) cranial nerves, with the trigeminal, hypoglossal, and nucleus ambiguus constituting the efferent levels.
Cranial nerve IX – Glossopharyngeal nerve The efferent motor fibers of cranial nerve IX supply the stylopharyngeus muscle,1 which helps elevate the larynx and expand the pharynx during swallowing.
Cranial nerves, whose axons leave from the brainstem, are the lower motor neurons for the vast majority of muscles involved in swallowing, coughing, and respiration. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves (see below), each with a left and ride side. Swallowing is controlled by both cortical and brainstem regions.
The result is difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) and speaking (dysphonia). The vagus nerve has several important branches, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
The facial nerve contributes to the oropharyngeal phase of deglutition via the buccinator, perioral, digastricus posterior, and stylohyoid muscles. The gustatory and salivatory functions of the facial nerve are also known to contribute to swallowing.
The vagus nerve (X) has many branches and is responsible for tasks including heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, and muscle movements in the mouth, including speech and keeping the larynx open for breathing.
The cranial nerves are all located on the underside of your brain inside your skull. They come in pairs, one on each side of the brain, and are numbered in Roman numerals I through XII. These are often labeled as CN I, CN II, and so on.
Eating and swallowing are compex behaviors including both volitional and reflexive activities involving more than 30 nerves and muscles. The Anatomy of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and innervations of the muscles are shown in Figure 1 and Table 1. The tongue has both oral and pharyngeal surfaces.
The muscles that control the oral phase of swallowing are stimulated by nerves located in the brainstem, called cranial nerves. The cranial nerves involved in coordinating this stage include the trigeminal nerve, the facial nerve, and the hypoglossal nerve.
cranial nerve, in vertebrates, any of the paired nerves of the peripheral nervous system that connect the muscles and sense organs of the head and thoracic region directly to the brain. cranial nerves. Related Topics: optic nerve vagus nerve vestibulocochlear nerve facial nerve hypoglossal nerve.
The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as cranial nerve eight (CN VIII), consists of the vestibular and cochlear nerves. Each nerve has distinct nuclei within the brainstem.
Its name (“trigeminal” = tri-, or three, and – geminus, or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) having three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3).
But in all stages of swallowing the cranial nerves play a major role in modulating swallowing execution and their integrity is indispensable . The trigeminal nerve (TN), the fifth cranial nerve, controls somatosensation of the face and the anterior two-thirds of the tongue [4, 5].
The structures involved in deglutition include the tongue, hard and soft palate, pharyngeal muscles, esophagus, and gastroesophageal junction. Coordination of swallowing is controlled by the trigeminal (CN V), facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), vagus (X), and hypoglossal (CN XII) nerves and their nuclei.
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system.
Central Nervous System Control of the Laryngeal Musculature in the Brain Stem. Innervation of the laryngeal muscles is essential for both voice and swallowing. For voice, both vocal folds must be moved to the midline so they can be set into vibration by airflow from the lungs.
CNFunctionQualityI—olfactory nerve (smell)Transmits signals from the olfactory organ (nose) to the brainSomatosensory and afferentII—optic nerve (vision)Transmits visual signals from the retina to the brainSomatosensory and afferent
The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although on a structural level the olfactory, optic and terminal nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system (CNS). The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are special nerves associated with the brain.
Originate at the Receptors of olfactory receptors are specialized neurons in the epithelium covering the roof of the nasal cavity. Destination is the olfactory bulbs. Olfactory nerve is the only one that connected directly to cerebrum. The rest connects to the brain stem and diencephalon.
Your larynx is the part of your throat that is also known as your voice box. Before you swallow, you chew your food to an appropriate size, shape, and consistency. When you swallow, this material passes through your mouth and a part of your throat called the pharynx.
 The longitudinal pharyngeal muscles function to condense and expand the pharynx as well as help elevate the pharynx and larynx during swallowing. These muscles include the stylopharyngeus (CN IX), salpingopharyngeus (CN X), and the palatopharyngeus (CN X).
The thirteenth cranial nerve, commonly referred to as the nervus terminalis or terminal nerve, is a highly conserved multifaceted nerve found just above the olfactory bulbs in humans and most vertebrate species. In most forms its fibers course from the rostral portion of the brain to the olfactory and nasal epithelia.
Motor branches of the trigeminal nerve are distributed in the mandibular nerve. These fibers originate in the motor nucleus of the fifth nerve, which is located near the main trigeminal nucleus in the pons.
The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. It is considered as the eleventh of twelve pairs of cranial nerves, or simply cranial nerve XI, as part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain.
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII). … The facial nerve provides motor innervation of facial muscles that are responsible for facial expression, parasympathetic innervation of the glands of the oral cavity and the lacrimal gland, and sensory innervation of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
The facial nerve is the 7th cranial nerve and carries nerve fibers that control facial movement and expression. The facial nerve also carries nerves that are involved in taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and producing tears (lacrimal gland). … Facial Paralysis and Facial Reanimation.
The trigeminal nerve, also called the cranial nerve V (that’s the Roman numeral five), is the fifth of 12 cranial nerves. You have two trigeminal nerves, one on each side of your body. They start in your brain and travel throughout your head.
Sinus Anatomy and Sinus Pain The control center for the trigeminal nerve is in the brainstem, which is located at the base of your brain. “When you get a sinus infection or inflammation like allergic rhinitis or swelling, it puts pressure on the nerve, which then sends the signal for headache,” says Merle L.
The different branches are namely the ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3) nerves. The ophthalmic nerve is responsible for sensory innervation of the face and skull above the palpebral fissure as well as the eye and portions of the nasal cavity.