**randomized algorithm**is an

**algorithm**that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic. The

**algorithm**typically uses uniformly

**random**bits as an auxiliary input to guide its behavior, in the hope of achieving good performance in the “average case” over all possible choices of

**random**bits.

Correspondingly, what is randomized algorithm with example?

An **algorithm** that uses random numbers to decide what to do next anywhere in its logic is called **Randomized Algorithm**.. For **example**, in **Randomized** Quick Sort, we use random number to pick the next pivot (or we randomly shuffle the array). And in Karger's **algorithm**, we randomly pick an edge.

Subsequently, question is, why randomized Quicksort is useful? The benefit of **randomized quicksort** is that suddenly, the distribution on input order does not matter anymore: by adding our own randomness we ensure that, regardless of the input distribution, we obtain an expected runtime of . That is why it can be a good idea to use.

Regarding this, what is a randomized quicksort?

**Randomized Quick Sort** is an extension of **Quick Sort** in which the pivot element is chosen randomly. What can be the worst case time complexity of this algorithm. According to me, it should be O(n2), as the worst case happens when randomly chosen pivot is selected in sorted or reverse sorted order.

Why do we analyze the expected running time of a randomized algorithm and not its worst case running time?

**We analyze the expected run time** because it represents the more typical **time** cost.

## What is a 2 approximation?

**approximation**guarantee. So, a

**2**–

**approximation**algorithm returns a solution whose cost is at most twice the optimal.

## What is amortized analysis explain with an example?

**Amortized Analysis**, we analyze a sequence of operations and guarantee a worst case average time which is lower than the worst case time of a particular expensive operation. The

**example**data structures whose operations are analyzed using

**Amortized Analysis**are Hash Tables, Disjoint Sets and Splay Trees.

## What is deterministic and nondeterministic algorithm?

**deterministic algorithm**represents a single path from an input to an outcome, a

**nondeterministic algorithm**represents a single path stemming into many paths, some of which may arrive at the same output and some of which may arrive at unique outputs.

## What is backtracking in data structure?

**Backtracking**is a general algorithm for finding all (or some) solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate (“backtracks”) as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a

## What is greedy algorithm in data structure?

**Data Structures**–

**Greedy Algorithms**. Advertisements. An

**algorithm**is designed to achieve optimum solution for a given problem. In

**greedy algorithm approach**, decisions are made from the given solution domain. As being

**greedy**, the closest solution that seems to provide an optimum solution is chosen.

## What is brute force algorithm with example?

**Brute Force Algorithms**refers to a programming style that does not include any shortcuts to improve performance, but instead relies on sheer computing power to try all possibilities until the solution to a problem is found. A classic

**example**is the traveling salesman problem (TSP).

## What is deterministic programming?

**deterministic algorithm**is an

**algorithm**which, given a particular input, will always produce the same output, with the underlying machine always passing through the same sequence of states.

## What is dynamic programming algorithm?

**Dynamic Programming**is the most powerful design technique for solving optimization problems.

**Dynamic Programming**is a paradigm of

**algorithm**design in which an optimization problem is solved by a combination of achieving sub-problem solutions and appearing to the “principle of optimality”.

## Is randomized quicksort stable?

## Why Quicksort is Nlogn?

## How do you do quick sort?

**Quick Sort**Algorithm: Steps on how it works:

Start a pointer (the left pointer) at the first item in the array. Start a pointer (the right pointer) at the last item in the array. While the value at the left pointer in the array is less than the pivot value, move the left pointer to the right (add 1).

## What is the smallest possible depth of a leaf in a decision tree for a comparison sort?

**What is the smallest possible depth of a leaf in a decision tree**for a

**sorting**algorithm? answer: The shortest

**possible depth**is n − 1. To see this, observe that if we have a root-

**leaf**path (say pr→l) with k

**comparisons**, we cannot be sure that the permutation π(l) at the

**leaf**l is the correct one.

## What is DS heap sort?

**heap sort**. A

**sorting**algorithm that works by first organizing the data to be

**sorted**into a special type of binary tree called a

**heap**. The

**heap**itself has, by definition, the largest value at the top of the tree, so the

**heap sort**algorithm must also reverse the order.

## How does Bucket sort work?

**Bucket sort**, or bin

**sort**, is a

**sorting**algorithm that

**works**by distributing the elements of an array into a number of

**buckets**. Each

**bucket**is then

**sorted**individually, either using a different

**sorting**algorithm, or by recursively applying the

**bucket sorting**algorithm.

## How does a binary search algorithm proceed?

**Binary search**begins by comparing an element in the middle of the array with the target value. If the target value is greater than the element, the

**search**continues in the upper half of the array. By doing this, the

**algorithm**eliminates the half in which the target value cannot lie in each iteration.

## Why is quicksort worst case N 2?

**worst case**time complexity of a typical implementation of

**QuickSort**is O(

**n**). The

^{2}**worst case**occurs when the picked pivot is always an extreme (smallest or largest) element. The idea is based on the fact that the median element of an unsorted array can be found in linear time.

## How do I select a pivot element in Quicksort?

**There are many ways to choose pivot:**

- Always choose 1st element.
- Always choose last element as pivot.
- Choose median of array as pivot (can be chosen in linear time).
- Choose random element as pivot.

## Is quicksort deterministic?

**Deterministic**means that the

**quicksort**will always sort the same set of data in the same fashion while a randomized

**quicksort**uses randomization and will rarely sort the same data in the same exact fashion (unless the data set is very small – then it is more common).

## What is the expected run time of the randomized version of quick sort?

**Expected Running Time**of

**Randomized Quick**–

**Sort**

Partition is called n times – The pivot element x is not included in any recursive calls. One call of Partition takes O(1) **time** plus **time** proportional to the number of iterations of FOR-loop.