Intractable epilepsy is when seizures can’t be controlled by medicines. (Intractable means “not easily managed or relieved.”) It’s also called refractory, uncontrolled, or drug-resistant epileptic seizures.
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Contents

What does intractable or not intractable mean?

adjective. not easily controlled or directed; not docile or manageable; stubborn; obstinate: an intractable disposition.

What percentage of epilepsy is intractable?

This condition is also referred to as intractable, medically refractory, or pharmacoresistant epilepsy. As many as 20 to 40 percent of patients with epilepsy (roughly 400,000 people living in the United States) are likely to have refractory epilepsy.

What does without status epilepticus mean?

If you have epilepsy, you may have seizures repeatedly. A seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes, or having more than 1 seizure within a 5 minutes period, without returning to a normal level of consciousness between episodes is called status epilepticus.

What are the three types of epilepsy?

Generalized epilepsy. Focal epilepsy. Generalized and focal epilepsy. Unknown if generalized or focal epilepsy.

What is not intractable mean?

1 : not easily governed, managed, or directed intractable problems. 2 : not easily relieved or cured intractable pain. 3 : not easily manipulated or shaped intractable metal.

What causes intractable epilepsy?

They are caused by electrical imbalances in the brain and hyperactive neurons. Some people with intractable epilepsy may have convulsions, which means they cannot stop shaking. Seizures may also cause: Blackouts.

Is epilepsy a disability?

Medically Qualifying for Disability Benefits Due to Epilepsy Epilepsy is one of the conditions listed in the Social Security Administration’s Blue Book, which means that if you meet the requirements in the Blue Book listing for epilepsy you may be able to get disability benefits.

What is epilepsy unspecified not intractable with status epilepticus?

Epilepsy, unspecified, not intractable A group of disorders marked by problems in the normal functioning of the brain. These problems can produce seizures, unusual body movements, a loss of consciousness or changes in consciousness, as well as mental problems or problems with the senses.

Does epilepsy shorten life expectancy?

Reduction in life expectancy can be up to 2 years for people with a diagnosis of idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy, and the reduction can be up to 10 years in people with symptomatic epilepsy. Reductions in life expectancy are highest at the time of diagnosis and diminish with time.

What is non convulsive seizure?

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) refers to a prolonged seizure that manifests primarily as altered mental status as opposed to the dramatic convulsions seen in generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus. There are 2 main types of NCSE, each of which has a different presentation, cause, and expected outcome.

What is an absent seizure?

An absence seizure causes you to blank out or stare into space for a few seconds. They can also be called petit mal seizures. Absence seizures are most common in children and typically don’t cause any long-term problems. These types of seizures are often set off by a period of hyperventilation.

Can non epileptic seizures cause death?

Conclusions: Patients diagnosed with PNES have a SMR 2.5 times above the general population, dying at a rate comparable to those with drug-resistant epilepsy.

What is Type 4 epilepsy?

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures, which are often stereotyped and brief (5 seconds to 5 minutes). They vary from simple arousals from sleep to dramatic, often bizarre hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features.

What's the difference between epilepsy and seizures?

A seizure is a single occurrence, whereas epilepsy is a neurological condition characterized by two or more unprovoked seizures.

What do silent seizures look like?

Someone having an absence seizure may look like he or she is staring blankly into space for a few seconds. Then, there is a quick return to a normal level of alertness. This type of seizure usually doesn’t lead to physical injury.

What is intractable focal epilepsy?

Intractable epilepsy is a seizure disorder in which a patient’s seizures fail to come under control with treatment. These seizures are sometimes also called “uncontrolled” or “refractory.”

What is an intractable problem?

From a computational complexity stance, intractable problems are problems for which there exist no efficient algorithms to solve them. Most intractable problems have an algorithm – the same algorithm – that provides a solution, and that algorithm is the brute-force search.

What is idiopathic epilepsy?

Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is a group of epileptic disorders that are believed to have a strong underlying genetic basis. Patients with an IGE subtype are typically otherwise normal and have no structural brain abnormalities.

What is the best epilepsy medication?

March 22, 2007 – Lamictal is the best first-choice drug for partial epilepsy, while valproic acid is the best first choice for generalized epilepsy, two major clinical trials show.

What are the 4 types of seizures?

It causes seizures, which are bursts of electricity in the brain. There are four main types of epilepsy: focal, generalized, combination focal and generalized, and unknown. A person’s seizure type determines what kind of epilepsy they have. Different types of seizures affect the brain in different ways.

Can stress trigger a seizure?

Stress, anxiety, and other mood disorders can trigger seizures, but these are fairly common among people with epilepsy. If you are frequently stressed, talk to your physician or a mental health professional to see if you have a treatable mood disorder or to discuss ways to lower your stress levels.

What should epileptics avoid?

  • Not taking epilepsy medicine as prescribed.
  • Feeling tired and not sleeping well.
  • Stress.
  • Alcohol and recreational drugs.
  • Flashing or flickering lights.
  • Monthly periods.
  • Missing meals.
  • Having an illness which causes a high temperature.
What foods should you avoid if you have epilepsy?

If you have a sudden spike or crash in blood sugar, this could cause seizures. This is why it is generally best to avoid high sugar, processed foods such as cookies, cakes, candy and white bread. Ideally you should aim to follow a balanced diet which will release energy into your bloodstream at a slower, steadier rate.

What jobs can you not do with epilepsy?

People with epilepsy are successfully employed in a variety of jobs that might be considered high-risk: police officer, firefighter, welder, butcher, construction worker, etc. Epilepsy is a highly variable disorder and it is difficult to generalize about safety issues.

What is the code for intractable epilepsy?

Epilepsy, unspecified, intractable, without status epilepticus. G40. 919 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes.

How do you code seizure disorder?

Also called a seizure disorder, epilepsy may be diagnosed when the patient has two or more unprovoked seizures. A seizure episode is classified to ICD-9-CM code 780.39, Other convulsions. This code also includes convulsive disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), fit NOS, and recurrent convulsions NOS.

What is LGS syndrome?

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a type of epilepsy. Patients with LGS experience many different types of seizures including: Tonic – stiffening of the body. Atonic – temporary loss of muscle tone and consciousness, causing the patient to fall.

Is chocolate good for epilepsy?

In humans, the intake of methylxanthines (abundantly found in cocoa-based dark chocolate as well as in caffeine) have been proposed to not only reduce the anticonvulsant activity of a number of antiepileptic drugs,88–90 but to also have the capability to trigger seizures in patients without known underlying epilepsy.

Does epilepsy worsen with age?

Other factors that can affect your overall prognosis include: Age: Adults over the age of 60 may experience an increased risk for epileptic seizures, as well as related complications.

Are epilepsy and bipolar disorder related?

Results: Bipolar symptoms, evident in 12.2% of epilepsy patients, were 1.6 to 2.2 times more common in subjects with epilepsy than with migraine, asthma, or diabetes mellitus, and 6.6 times more likely to occur than in the healthy comparison group.

How common is non convulsive status epilepticus?

NCSE affects: 12-33% of post-cardiac arrest patients in ICU. 8-35% of TBI patients in ICU.

Do non convulsive seizures require care?

Those clinical forms of NCSE that usually respond well to first-line anticonvulsants include absence SE and, if occurring in the context of chronic epilepsy, simple and complex partial SE. These conditions generally do not require intensive care treatment, in contrast to de novo CPSE owing to acute brain insults.

What to do if someone is having a non convulsive seizure?

Speak quietly and calmly in a friendly way. Guide the person gently away from any danger, such as a flight of steps, a busy highway, or a hot stove. Don’t grab hold of the person, however, unless some immediate danger threatens.

What type of epilepsy comprises of absence seizures?

Like other kinds of seizures, they are caused by brief abnormal electrical activity in a person’s brain. An absence seizure is a generalized onset seizure, which means it begins in both sides of the brain at the same time. An older term is petit mal seizures.

What triggers absence seizures?

What Is an Absence Seizure? Affecting about two of every 1,000 people, absence seizures (formerly called ”petit mal” seizures) are caused by abnormal and intense electrical activity in the brain. Normally, the brain’s nerve cells (neurons) communicate with one another by firing tiny electric signals.

Can you drive with absence seizures?

Some activities can be dangerous for people with absence seizures. This is because absence seizures cause a temporary loss of awareness. Driving and swimming during an absence seizure might cause an accident or drowning. Your doctor may restrict your activity until they’re certain your seizures are under control.

Are non epileptic seizures fake?

PNES are attacks that may look like epileptic seizures but are not epileptic and instead are cause by psychological factors. Sometimes a specific traumatic event can be identified. PNES are sometimes referred to as psychogenic events, psychological events, or nonepileptic seizures (NES).

Can stress cause seizures without epilepsy?

Even in people without epilepsy, stress and anxiety can trigger PNES, which are also known as pseudoseizures. PNES are physiologically different from the neurological seizures found in epilepsy.

Can you be aware during a seizure?

Some people have an “aura,” or warning. This is actually the first symptom of a seizure. It’s considered part of the seizure, since bursts of electrical activity are already going on in the brain when this occurs. During this part of the seizure, you are still conscious and aware of what is going on.

Is epilepsy a severe mental illness?

Epilepsy News From: Epilepsy is not a mental illness. In fact, the vast majority of people living with epilepsy have no cognitive or psychological problem. For the most part, psychological issues in epilepsy are limited to people with severe and uncontrolled epilepsy.