|Number of Neutrons||24|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||[2, 8, 9, 2]|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d1 4s2|
Scandium, atomic number 21.
If you build up the scandium atom from scratch, the last electrons to go in are the two 4s electrons. These are the electrons in the highest energy level, and so it is logical that they will be removed first when the scandium forms ions.
4s vs 3d Sublevels At scandium, rather than a valence electron configuration of 4s2 3d1, we get 3d1 4s2.
Diagram of the nuclear composition and electron configuration of an atom of scandium-45 (atomic number: 21), the most common isotope of this element. The nucleus consists of 21 protons (red) and 24 neutrons (yellow).
Scandium atoms have 21 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8. 9.2. The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral scandium is [Ar].
21Sc Scandium It is reactive and will tarnish to a yellowish or pinkish color in air. If water is run over it, a reaction that releases hydrogen gas will result. Scandium is also very reactive with acids. Scandium is a rare metal on Earth, although it is much more common in the Sun and other stars.
Scandium can be obtained from the minerals thortveitite ((Sc, Y)2Si2O7), bazzite (Be3(Sc, Al)2Si6O18) and wiikite, but is usually obtained as a byproduct of refining uranium. Metallic scandium was first produced in 1937 and the first pound (0.45 kilograms) of pure scandium was produced in 1960.
Instead of having three electrons in the outer shell, scandium adds its electron to the second to last shell. The electron configuration is 2-8-9-2. You will find scandium to the right of calcium in the fourth period of the table.
First Ionization Energy of Scandium is 6.5614 eV.
|Ionization Energy||Name chemical element||Symbol|
The periodic table is organized into columns and rows. The number of protons in the nucleus increases when reading the periodic table from right to left. Each row represents an energy level. The elements in each column share similar properties and the same number of valence electrons.
|Phase at STP||solid|
|Melting point||1814 K (1541 °C, 2806 °F)|
|Boiling point||3109 K (2836 °C, 5136 °F)|
|Density (near r.t. )||2.985 g/cm3|
Scandium metal is a silvery-white solid with a slight pink or yellow tint when exposed to air. It has a melting point of 1,538°C (2,800°F) and a boiling point of about 2,700°C (4,900°F). Its density is 2.99 grams per cubic centimeter.
Scandium has 13 types of isotopes but the naturally occurring Scandium has one stable isotope. Cesium (Cs) has the maximum number of isotopes.
DensityNameSymbol2.54 g/ccStrontiumSr2.702 g/ccAluminumAl2.99 g/ccScandiumSc3.119 g/ccBromineBr
Y has a mass number close to 90 and has 50 neutrons in its nucleus.
ZElementNo. of electrons/shell21Scandium2, 8, 9, 222Titanium2, 8, 10, 223Vanadium2, 8, 11, 224Chromium2, 8, 13, 1
gallium (Ga), chemical element, metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table. It liquefies just above room temperature.
The electronic configuration of scandium is Sc: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 .
So… for the element of BERYLLIUM, you already know that the atomic number tells you the number of electrons. That means there are 4 electrons in a beryllium atom. Looking at the picture, you can see there are two electrons in shell one and two in shell two.
Scandium-45 atom is the stable isotope of scandium with relative atomic mass 44.955910, 100 atom percent natural abundance and nuclear spin 7/2.
SpeciesNamechargeSc+Scandium cation1Ga-Gallium atom anion-1Ga+Gallium atom cation1BH-boron monohydride anion-1
scandium (Sc), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of Group 3 of the periodic table. Scandium is a silvery white, moderately soft metal.
Scandium is the 31st most abundant element on Earth, according to Periodic Table, with about 22 parts per million abundance by weight in Earth’s crust, according to Chemicool. Scandium is scattered thinly and has been found in over 800 minerals.
Source: Scandium is not found free in nature but is found combined in minute amounts in over 800 minerals. Rare minerals from Scandinavia and Madagascar (thortveitite, euxenite, and gadolinite) are the only known concentrated sources of the element.
Aluminum Scandium alloy is a kind of high-performance aluminum alloy. There are several ways to improve the performance of aluminum alloy. In the past 20 years, micro-alloying and toughening is the frontier of high-performance aluminum alloy research.
Scandium has three valence electrons.
Atomic Number31Number of Neutrons39Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)[2, 8, 18, 3]Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1Valence Electrons4s2 4p1
In the fourth period, the transition-element scandium has an ionization energy of 631 kJ mol–1.
First ionization energy / kJ mol-1:633.09Second ionization energy / kJ mol-1:1234.99Third ionization energy / kJ mol-1:2388.67
Electron Affinity of Yttrium is 29.6 kJ/mol. … First Ionization Energy of Yttrium is 6.217 eV.
The electrons surrounding an atom are located in regions around the nucleus called “energy levels”. An energy level represents the 3-dimensional space surrounding the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be. … When the third energy level has 8 electrons, the next 2 electrons go into the fourth energy level.
Every atom has an infinite number of energy levels available, depending on how much energy has been absorbed. In the ground state, there are seven (known/most-often-seen) energy levels which may contain electrons. The period number is the same as the highest energy level in that period at ground state.
Sodium is in the third period, so it has three energy levels. As the number describing the energy level increases, the energy of that level also increases. Next, each energy level has sublevels, or subshells, which contain different atomic orbitals.