What is the most common cause of Addison disease? how is addison’s disease diagnosed.
What transfusion reactions are the 3 most commonly reported causes of transfusion-related mortality?
Which of the following blood group system is most commonly associated with fatal transfusion reactions?
The most common immediate adverse reactions to transfusion are fever, chills and urticaria.
A hemolytic transfusion reaction is a serious complication that can occur after a blood transfusion. The reaction occurs when the red blood cells that were given during the transfusion are destroyed by the person’s immune system. When red blood cells are destroyed, the process is called hemolysis.
Acute hemolytic reactions happen within 24 hours of transfusion and delayed hemolytic reactions happen after 24 hours. Delayed reactions usually occur two weeks after but can go up to 30 days post transfusion.
Causes. The most common cause of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction is ABO incompatibility, which is typically due to human error that results in a recipient receiving the incorrect blood product. Rarely, other blood type incompatibilities can cause AHTR, the most common of which is Kidd antigen incompatibility.
Acute transfusion reactions present as adverse signs or symptoms during or within 24 hours of a blood transfusion. The most frequent reactions are fever, chills, pruritus, or urticaria, which typically resolve promptly without specific treatment or complications.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the most common cause of major morbidity and death after transfusion.
Acute HTRs: These are due to preformed antibodies against donor RBC antigens present in the recipient’s blood. ABO incompatibility reactions are the most dreaded hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their ability to cause intravascular hemolysis.
Hemolysis is the destruction of red blood cells. Hemolysis can occur due to different causes and leads to the release of hemoglobin into the bloodstream. Normal red blood cells (erythrocytes) have a lifespan of about 120 days. After they die they break down and are removed from the circulation by the spleen.
Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be made. The destruction of red blood cells is called hemolysis. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of your body.
Persistent arm problems (17/38) and vasovagal events (12/38) continue to be the most frequently reported SAEDs.
Today, the leading causes of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT)–related mortality in the United States—in the order of reported number of deaths—are transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), ABO and non-ABO hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs), and transfusion-associated sepsis (TAS).
Acute hemolytic reactions (antibody mediated): Most severe and fatal reactions result from inadvertent transfusion of group AB or group A red cells to a group O recipient.
Intravascular hemolysis is the state when the red blood cell ruptures as a result of the complex of complement autoantibodies attached (fixed) on the surfaces of RBCs attack and rupture RBCs’ membranes, or a parasite such as Babesia exits the cell that ruptures the RBC’s membrane as it goes.
In conditions where the rate of RBC breakdown is increased, the body initially compensates by producing more RBCs; however, breakdown of RBCs can exceed the rate that the body can make RBCs, and so anemia can develop. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of hemoglobin, can accumulate in the blood, causing jaundice.
- Hypoxia from long standing (chronic) lung disease and smoking are common causes of polycythemia. …
- Chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure can also be a risk factor for polycythemia.
Hemolysis can be caused by rough handling of a blood specimen, leaving the tourniquet on too long (causing blood stasis) or squeezing the tip of the finger too hard during capillary collection, dilution, exposure to contaminants, extremes in temperature, or pathologic conditions.
Conditions that may lead to hemolytic anemia include inherited blood disorders such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia, autoimmune disorders, bone marrow failure, or infections. Some medicines or side effects to blood transfusions may cause hemolytic anemia.
- Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common cause.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Penicillin and its derivatives.
- Certain medicine.
- Infections such as: Viral infections, including mononucleosis. Atypical pneumonia.
- Certain cancers: Leukemia. …
- Collagen-vascular (autoimmune) diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Family history of hemolytic disease.
Acute transfusion reactions and transfusion-associated circulatory overload carry the highest risk for morbidity and death. The high rate of participation in SHOT by National Health Service organizations, 99·5%, is encouraging.
Transfusion-related circulatory overload (TACO) remains the most common cause of transfusion-related death, although deaths due to delays are increasing year-on-year, shows an analysis of reports to the UK’s transfusion safety body.
The SHOT UK scheme showed that approximately 70% of IBCT event errors took place in clinical areas, the most frequent error being failure of the final patient ID check at bedside.
Today, the leading causes of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT)– related mortality in the United States—in the order of reported number of deaths—are transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), ABO and non-ABO hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs), and transfusion-associated sepsis (TAS).
Diagnostically, it remains very challenging to distinguish TACO and TRALI from underlying causes of lung injury and/or fluid overload as well as from each other. TACO is characterized by pulmonary hydrostatic (cardiogenic) edema, whereas TRALI presents as pulmonary permeability edema (noncardiogenic).
Post-transfusion purpura (PTP) is a rare yet serious disease characterized by severe thrombocytopenia occurring after a blood transfusion. It is caused by alloimmunization against platelet antigens, anti-HPA-1a being the most frequent antibody.
Common Rh phenotypes The most common Rh haplotype in Caucasians, Asians, and Native Americans is DCe. In Blacks, the Dce haplotype is slightly more common (1). In Caucasians, the Rh D-negative phenotype results from a deletion of the RHD gene. About 15% of Caucasians are Rh D-negative.
Hemolytic reactions occur when the recipient’s serum contains antibodies directed against the corresponding antigen found on donor red blood cells. This can be an ABO incompatibility or an incompatibility related to a different blood group antigen.
Extravascular hemolysis usually results from more subtle RBC destruction, typically with chronic splenic enlargement and jaundice. Extravascular hemolysis is more common with RBC membrane disorders such as hereditary spherocytosis. Some forms of hemolytic anemia feature both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis.
It is well known that acute haemolysis is a cause of acute renal failure due to tubular damage caused by pigments being deposited in the proximal tubule.
IMHA may also be categorized based on whether it results in intravascular or extravascular hemolysis. Intravascular hemolysis results from the lysis of red blood cells by complement within the vasculature, and may be identified by the presence of free hemoglobin within the plasma and urine.