What is the nuclear option AP Gov? nuclear option example.
Which of the following ligaments is the direct continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament?
What are the nuchal lines located on the occipital bone and how do they relate to the external occipital protuberance?
The supraspinous ligament connects the tips of the spinous processes from the seventh cervical vertebra to the sacrum. Above the seventh cervical vertebra, the supraspinous ligament is continuous with the nuchal ligament.
It covers the spines of C1 to C6 vertebrae. It is a superior and posterior extension of the supraspinous ligament. It rises from the spinous process of C7 to the inion of the occipital bone, attaching all the posterior tips of the spinous processes in between. It is thick and strong, limiting hyperflexion of the neck.
The nuchal ligament limits forward flexion of the head and the cervical spine. It also serves as the attachment for some major muscles.
The ligamentum nuchae is formed primarily from the aponeurotic attachments of the adjacent and subjacent musculature. From superficial to deep, these muscles are the trapezius; rhomboideus minor; splenius capitis; and the serratus posterior superior.
The superficial layer is a continuation of the Tectorial membrane at the body of axis while the deep layer is a continuation of the cruciform ligament of the atlas. The posterior longitudinal ligament runs in the spinal canal attaching to the vertebral bodies and vertebral discs and tightens with cervical flexion.
Caudally the supraspinous ligament ends normally at the 4th lumbar spinous process. Below the caudal end of the supraspinous ligament the fibres of the thoracolumbar fascia cross to the opposite side and form a scissor-latticed structure.
The nuchal region, otherwise known as the posterior region of the neck or the posterior cervical region, is the area at the back of the neck situated deep to the trapezius muscle. It contains the spinal cord, cervical vertebrae and all the associated muscles. … Inferior: a line passing through C7 (vertebra prominence)
The nuchal ligament is a large elastic structure in the dorsal neck region that supports the horse’s head and the neck. It consists of about 80% of elastin fibers and some of collagen fibers.
The nuchal lines of the occipital bone are where many muscles and ligaments of the neck and back attach to the skull. Generally areas that serve as points of attachment for muscles have raised bone due to the stress on the bone and the stimulation that causes bone growth.
The foramen magnum (Latin: great hole) is a large, oval-shaped opening in the occipital bone of the skull. It is one of the several oval or circular openings (foramina) in the base of the skull. … It also transmits the accessory nerve into the skull. The foramen magnum is a very important feature in bipedal mammals.
- anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL)
- anterior atlanto-occipital membrane.
- apical ligament.
- alar ligaments (paired)
- cruciate ligament of the atlas. …
- posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL)
- tectorial membrane.
- ligamentum flavum.
Ossification of the nuchal ligament (ONL) is a radio-opaque formation in the soft tissues behind the spinous processes of the cervical spine. … Therefore, being similar to the ossification of other spinal ligaments, ONL may be a coexisting disorder or may be a risk factor of other cervical degenerative diseases.
Medical Definition of ligamentum nuchae : a medium ligament of the back of the neck that is rudimentary in humans but highly developed and composed of yellow elastic tissue in many quadrupeds where it assists in supporting the head.
The ligamenta flava (singular, ligamentum flavum) are paired ligaments (left and right) that run between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae (see Fig. 5-16). They are found throughout the spine beginning with C1-2 superiorly and ending with L5-S1 inferiorly.
|Posterior Longitudinal||Axis – Sacrum||Flexion & reinforces back of annulus fibrosis|
Uncovertebral arthrosis is osteoarthritic changes seen at the uncinate process of the cervical spine. It is a common site of arthrosis regularly observed at the lower cervical vertebrae.
The tectorial membrane (TM) is an extension of the posterior longitudinal ligament, connecting the dorsal aspect of the dens and the vertebral bodies of C2 and C3 to the clivus.
Ligamentum Flavum At each vertebral level, fibers originate from a superior lamina (the term superior refers to a location above, relatively speaking) and connect to the inferior lamina (i.e. the lamina just below). The ligamentum flavum limits spinal flexion (bending forward), especially abrupt flexion.
The supraspinous ligament serves as a midline attachment for some important muscles. The supraspinous ligament helps maintain the upright position of the head.
The anterior longitudinal ligament lies anterior to the vertebral bodies along the vertebral column. The ligamentum flavum connects the lamina of two adjacent vertebrae. The nuchal ligament is a continuation of the supraspinous ligament above C7, which connects spinous processes.
The superior nuchal line is larger than the supreme nuchal line, and it also extends from midline to the lambdoid sutures, curving slightly more than the supreme nuchal line laterally. At its midline is a prominence called the external occipital protuberance, with its highest point termed the inion.
All dogs (and all living Canidae – wolves, foxes, and wild dogs) possess a similar ligament connecting the spinous process of their first thoracic (or chest) vertebrae to the back of the axis bone (second cervical or neck bone), which supports the weight of the head without active muscle exertion, thus saving energy.
Stretching (extending) the neck forward is often seen in horses with pain or injury in the mouth, throat, jaw, or neck. … When accompanied by mouth distorting postures (twisting), neck stretching can be a sign of a foreign body stuck in the throat, back of the mouth, or pharynx. It can also be a sign of dental problems.
Increased fat deposits along the crest of the neck in horses and ponies (nuchal crest adiposity) has similarly been associated with an altered metabolic state [5,6] and an increased risk of certain metabolic disorders such insulin resistance [7-9].
The external occipital crest (or median nuchal line) is a highly variable median line or crest that passes between the right and the left nuchal musculature. It stretches from the external occipital protuberance to the rear of the foramen magnum, anchoring the nuchal ligament.
Function. Bilaterally, the splenius capitis muscles extend and hyper-extend the head and neck. However, acting unilaterally, the muscle flexes and rotates the head and neck to the same side; particularly in the superior and inferior lateral oblique movements.
The nuchal lines are four curved lines on the external surface of the occipital bone: The upper, often faintly marked, is named the highest nuchal line, and to it the galea aponeurotica is attached.
The nuchal ligament attaches the head to the spine and is an adaptation designed to stabilize the head in animals that run fast and far. The nuchal ligament that dogs have is like the one that horses have. It supports the head without using muscles, thus saving energy and making the animal more efficient.
Anterior longitudinal ligament injuries in whiplash may lead to cervical instability. They explain that during the retraction phase that is when the actual “whiplash” occurs, since there is an unusual loading of soft tissues.
Context: The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the superior articular facets of the atlas vertebra and form an important junction between the cranium and the vertebral column.
Hominin – the group consisting of modern humans, extinct human species and all our immediate ancestors (including members of the genera Homo, Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Ardipithecus).
foramina) is an opening that allows the passage of structures from one region to another. In the skull base, there are numerous foramina that transmit cranial nerves, blood vessels and other structures – these are collectively referred to as the cranial foramina.
There are six major ligaments to consider in the cervical spine.
Atypical Vertebrae: C1 and C2 C1 and C2 are considered atypical vertebrae because they have some distinguishing features compared to the rest of the cervical spine. C1 Vertebra (the atlas). The top vertebra, called the atlas, is the only cervical vertebra without a vertebral body.
One of a series of bands of elastic tissue that runs between the lamina from the axis to the sacrum, the ligamentum flavum connects the laminae and fuses with the facet joint capsules. These bands serve as a covering over the spinal canal. … The elastin pulls the ligament out of the canal when the spine is extended.
Calcification of the alar ligament is a rare condition, which usually develops in the elderly and tends to occur following traumatic injury or as a consequence of inflammatory disease. In crowned dens syndrome, calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals deposit on the atlantoaxial joint.
Below the axis, the cervical vertebrae articulate with each other anteriorly at the intervertebral disks and posteriorly at the facet joints.
Cervical spondylosis is a general term for age-related wear and tear affecting the spinal disks in your neck. As the disks dehydrate and shrink, signs of osteoarthritis develop, including bony projections along the edges of bones (bone spurs). Cervical spondylosis is very common and worsens with age.