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Their natural habitat includes humans and animals. They are part of the natural skin flora, specifically colonizing external mucous membranes. However, these bacteria are often found in the environment (untreated water, soil and contaminated objects).
Conditions for Growth: epidermidis is facultatively anaerobic and has a temperature range for growth from 15° to 45°C. However, the species grows best at 30° to 37°C in aerobic conditions.
Staphylococcus epidermidis grows on MSA, but does not ferment mannitol (media remains light pink in color, colonies are colorless).
Most staph germs are spread by skin-to-skin contact. They can also be spread when you touch something that has the staph germ on it, such as clothing or a towel. Staph germs can then enter a break in the skin, such as cuts, scratches, or pimples. Usually the infection is minor and stays in the skin.
Cellular morphology and biochemistry Staphylococcus epidermidis is a very hardy microorganism, consisting of nonmotile, Gram-positive cocci, arranged in grape-like clusters. It forms white, raised, cohesive colonies about 1–2 mm in diameter after overnight incubation, and is not hemolytic on blood agar.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a well-characterized, nonfastidious, aerobic gram-positive coccus commonly isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory.
The most significant virulence factors in S. epidermidis are described as below: Biofilms: The bacterial surface adhesive accumulation that is embedded in an extracellular matrix that creates the bacteria protection against host defense mechanisms and antimicrobial agents.
epidermidis being a catalase-producing bacterium29, the role of catalase in the tolerance of S. epidermidis biofilm against heat, NaCl, NaOCl or H2O2-exposure has not been fully investigated.
Characteristics. Staphylococci are Gram-positive, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile, catalase-positive or negative, small, spherical bacteria from pairs to, grape-like clusters, from where the name Staphylococcus comes from (staphyle, meaning a bunch of grapes, and kokkos, meaning berry).
Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that causes staphylococcal food poisoning, a form of gastroenteritis with rapid onset of symptoms. S. aureus is commonly found in the environment (soil, water and air) and is also found in the nose and on the skin of humans. S.
One form is called spreading, which is a type of sliding motility and the second form involves comet formation, which has many observable characteristics associated with gliding motility. Darting motility has also been observed in Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Staphylococcus epidermidis can cause wound infections, boils, sinus infections, endocarditis and other inflammations. The bacterium can reside for a long period of time in “hiding places” in the body, where it is not noticed by the immune system, and therefore also not fought.
Staphylococcus epidermidis can cause infections from implantation of medical devices such as cardiac devices, orthopedic devices, and CNS shunt. Up to 20% of patients with cardiac devices can become infected and can show signs of erythema, pain, purulence around the site of the infection, and sepsis.
Results: S. epidermidis was identified as the causative organism of UTIs in children with underlying urinary tract abnormalities. Conclusion: UTIs caused by S. epidermidis in a previously healthy child should not be disregarded as a contaminant and further workup for urinary tract abnormality is indicated.
Also called “Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis”, inhabit typically on human epidermis (skin). Like the MRSA is a multidrug resistant organism. The MRSE can be distinguished from the MRSA by its biochemical reaction to the Coagulase (enzyme which coagulates blood plasma). The MRSE is a coagulase negative.
Staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci about 0.5 – 1.0 μm in diameter. They grow in clusters, pairs and occasionally in short chains. The clusters arise because staphylococci divide in two planes.
aureus is often hemolytic on blood agar; S. epidermidis is non hemolytic. Staphylococci are facultative anaerobes that grow by aerobic respiration or by fermentation that yields principally lactic acid. The bacteria are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a facultative anaerobe, i.e. it can survive in a wide range of [O2].
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a Gram-positive saprophytic bacterium found in the microaerobic/anaerobic layers of the skin. It becomes a health hazard when introduced across the skin by punctures or wounds. S. epidermidis forms biofilms in low O2 environments.
epidermidis metabolism went from respiratory to fermentative. Remarkably, the rate of growth decreased at low [O2] while a high concentration of ATP ([ATP]) was kept. Under hypoxic conditions bacteria associated into biofilms. Aerobic activity sensitized the cell to hydrogen peroxide-mediated damage.
More precisely, S. epidermidis accounted for 35 bloodstream infections (39.8%), 14 surface infections (29.8%), and 7 cases of meningitis (58.3%). Other less frequently isolated pathogens were S. aureus (27.2% of all infections), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.3%), and Candida albicans (9.2%).
Staph. epidermidis isolates from nosocomial infections frequently are resistant to methicillin; however, resistant isolates often appear to be susceptible to methicillin unless reliable methods of susceptibility testing are used.
Species of the genus Staphylococcus are characterized by the production of catalase. Among them, only two species, Staphylococcus saccharolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius, are not able to produce catalase (2, 3). Although it is well known that nearly all strains of S.
Staphylococcus species are catalase positive and facultatively anaerobic, except for S. aureus subsp. anaerobius and S. saccharolyticus, which are catalase negative and anaerobic.
Type of motilityExample speciesOther associated factorsDartingStaphylococcus epidermidisPoorly studied; many basic features are unknown (e.g. it is adhesive or electrostatic factors holding the cells together)
epidermidis is the staphylococcal species that is most frequently isolated from the human skin .
Staphylococcus aureus species is able to survive in drinking water distributed by public devices. Chlorine concentrations below the recommended level favors the growth of the pathogen.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can survive on some surfaces, like towels, razors, furniture, and athletic equipment for hours, days, or even weeks. It can spread to people who touch a contaminated surface, and MRSA can cause infections if it gets into a cut, scrape, or open wound.
Most people get staph poisoning by eating contaminated food. The most common reason for contamination is that the food has not been kept hot enough [140°F (60°C) or above] or cold enough [40°F (4°C) or below]. Foods that are associated with staph food poisoning include: Meats.
Staphylococcus aureus are Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacteria that do not produce endospores.
S. epidermidis strains harbored the highest prevalence of resistance against penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, cefazolin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole antibiotic agents. All S. epidermidis strains had resistance against at least three different types of antibiotics.