a pathway that carries visual information from the primary visual cortex to the temporal lobe. According to one widely-accepted hypothesis, the ventral stream (so named because of the path it takes along the ventral side of the brain) carries information related to object form and recognition.
What is the ventral side of an earthworm? how can you tell the dorsal side from the ventral side of an earthworm.

Where is the ventral pathway?

The ventral pathway was described as coursing through the occipitotemporal cortex to the anterior part of the inferior temporal gyrus (area TE)[1, 2], with a likely extension into the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC/area FDv)[3].

What is the ventral visual pathway specialized for?

The ventral pathway computes the identity of an object; the dorsal pathway computes the location of an object, and the actions related to that object. … This third pathway projects from early visual cortex, via motion-selective areas, into the superior temporal sulcus (STS).

Where are the ventral and dorsal pathways?

The ventral stream originates in primary visual cortex and extends along the ventral surface into the temporal cortex; the dorsal stream also arises in primary visual cortex, but continues along the dorsal surface into parietal cortex.

What is human dorsal and ventral pathways?

Abstract. The primate visual system is believed to comprise two main pathways: a ventral pathway for conscious perception and a dorsal pathway that can process visual information and guide action without accompanying conscious knowledge.

What does the dorsal pathway do?

a pathway that carries visual information from the primary visual cortex to the parietal lobe.

What does the parietal lobe do?

The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation (touch, pressure). Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation (judgment of texture, weight, size, and shape).

What are the dorsal and ventral visual processing streams specialized for?

It describes two information processing streams originating in the occipital cortex, dorsal (which goes to parietal cortex) and ventral (which goes to temporal cortex), which exhibit relative specialization in object recognition (what) and spatial vision (where).

What is the visual cortex?

The visual cortex is the primary cortical region of the brain that receives, integrates, and processes visual information relayed from the retinas. It is in the occipital lobe of the primary cerebral cortex, which is in the most posterior region of the brain.

Where is the dorsal visual pathway?

Dorsal visual pathway: this pathway extends from the primary visual cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe. The dorsal pathway is subdivided by the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) into several main sectors including the superior parietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule, and the supramarginal gyrus.

What are the parietal lobes?

The parietal lobes are located near the back and top of the head. They are important for processing and interpreting somatosensory input. Eg. they inform us about objects in our external environment through touch (i.e., physical contact with skin) and about the position and movement of our body parts (proprioception).

What is the dorsal ventral axis?

The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.

Why is ventral important?

The ventral cavity allows for considerable changes in the size and shape of the organs within it as they perform their functions. For example, organs such as the lungs, stomach, or uterus can expand or contract without distorting other tissues or disrupting the activities of nearby organs.

What type of processing is accomplished by the dorsal path?

The dorsal stream processes information about the “where” of the visual stimulus (Figure 15.10). Damage the dorsal visual association cortex results in deficits in spatial orientation, motion detection and in guidance of visual tracking eye movements.

What is the posterior of the body?

Posterior or dorsal – back (example, the shoulder blades are located on the posterior side of the body). … Lateral – away from the midline of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot).

What happens when the ventral stream is damaged?

Patients with damage to the ventral stream are typically unable to perceive the size, shape, and orientation of objects. Remarkably, however, some of these patients continue to show normal preshaping and rotation of the hand when they reach out to grasp the very objects whose forms they fail to see.

What is an interesting fact about the parietal lobe?

Quick facts: The parietal lobe carries out some very specific functions. As a part of the cortex, it has a lot of responsibilities and has to be able to process sensory information within seconds. The parietal lobe is where information such as taste, temperature and touch are integrated, or processed.

Is the parietal lobe in the right or left hemisphere?

The parietal lobe of the brain is situated between the frontal and occipital lobes, and above the temporal lobes. The parietal lobes take up premises in both the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

Can you live without your parietal lobe?

Without the environment, the brain could do little or nothing, and the parietal lobe is no exception. Its role in sensory processing means that the parietal lobe depends on a cascade of sensory input from all over the body, including the eyes, hands, tongue, and skin.

What happens when the dorsal pathway is damaged?

If either the dorsal or ventral stream is damaged, this leads to dissociable behavioural deficits. For example, patients with optic ataxia have lesions in parietal areas, which are part of the dorsal stream. They have deficits in reaching and grasping objects, but are able to visually discriminate different objects.

What is V4 in the brain?

V4 is the third cortical area in the ventral stream, receiving strong feedforward input from V2 and sending strong connections to the PIT. It also receives direct input from V1, especially for central space. In addition, it has weaker connections to V5 and dorsal prelunate gyrus (DP).

What separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe?

The central sulcus runs posterior-medial to anterior-lateral and separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

What is in frontal lobe?

The frontal lobe is the most anterior (front) part of the brain. It extends from the area behind the forehead back to the precentral gyrus. As a whole, the frontal lobe is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as memory, emotions, impulse control, problem solving, social interaction, and motor function.

Where is primary visual cortex located?

The primary visual cortex (area V1) is one of the most studied and physiologically well-understood regions of the brain. It is located in the posterior occipital lobe with approximately 67% of its surface area within the calcarine sulcus.

How do you remember the parietal lobe?

Parietal Lobe: processes sensory information. Use a “piranha” fish as your mnemonic. The piranha bites you on the top of the head (where the parietal lobe is located). That’s a sensation the parietal lobe would process.

What is temporal lobe?

The temporal lobes sit behind the ears and are the second largest lobe. They are most commonly associated with processing auditory information and with the encoding of memory.

Where is the motor cortex?

The motor cortex comprises three different areas of the frontal lobe, immediately anterior to the central sulcus. These areas are the primary motor cortex (Brodmann’s area 4), the premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area (Figure 3.1).

What is anterior and posterior?

Anterior refers to the front of the human body when used to describe anatomy. The opposite of anterior is posterior, meaning the back of the human body.

What is anterior posterior axis?

The anterior-posterior axis is defined by a line that runs from the head or mouth of an organism to the tail or opposite end of the organism.

What is a dorsal view?

Dorsal means the upper surface of an organism. For example, the dorsal view of a butterfly would be viewing the insect from above: Insects within a reference collection are commonly mounted so that their dorsal surface is visible.

What is the difference between anterior and ventral?

The term anterior means ‘towards the front‘ while the term ventral means ‘on or relating to the stomach of the animal or plant”.

What is the posterior parietal cortex?

The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus.