What part of the brain controls motivation and emotion? .
The primary motor cortex on the left side of the brain controls movement of the right side of the body, and vice-versa, the right motor cortex controls movement of the left side of the body.
Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of the brain beneath the occipital lobes. It is separated from the cerebrum by the tentorium (fold of dura). The cerebellum fine tunes motor activity or movement, e.g. the fine movements of fingers as they perform surgery or paint a picture.
The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination (how your muscles work together).
The amygdala is commonly thought to form the core of a neural system for processing fearful and threatening stimuli (4), including detection of threat and activation of appropriate fear-related behaviors in response to threatening or dangerous stimuli.
Neurons carry messages from the brain via the spinal cord. The neurons that carry these messages to the muscles are called motor neurons. … Neurons carry messages from the brain via the spinal cord. These messages are carried to the muscles which tell the muscle fibre to contract, which makes the muscles move.
(seh-REE-brum) The largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves, called the cerebral hemispheres. Areas within the cerebrum control muscle functions and also control speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning.
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are formed in the brain. Neurogenesis is crucial when an embryo is developing, but also continues in certain brain regions after birth and throughout our lifespan. … These progenitor cells themselves differentiate into specific types of neurons.
Loss of balance or unsteadiness Losing your balance while walking, or feeling imbalanced, can result from: Vestibular problems. Abnormalities in your inner ear can cause a sensation of a floating or heavy head and unsteadiness in the dark. Nerve damage to your legs (peripheral neuropathy).
Medulla. At the bottom of the brainstem, the medulla is where the brain meets the spinal cord. The medulla is essential to survival. Functions of the medulla regulate many bodily activities, including heart rhythm, breathing, blood flow, and oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
The motor cortex is an area within the cerebral cortex of the brain that is involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements. … The motor cortex is situated within the frontal lobe of the brain, next to a large sulcus called the central sulcus.
Amygdalotomy is a form of psychosurgery which involves the surgical removal or destruction of the amygdala, or parts of the amygdala. It is usually a last-resort treatment for severe aggressive behavioral disorders and similar behaviors including hyperexcitability, violent outbursts, and self-mutilation.
Damage to the amygdala can cause problems with memory processing, emotional reactions, and even decision-making.
The amygdala is located in the medial temporal lobe, just anterior to (in front of) the hippocampus. Similar to the hippocampus, the amygdala is a paired structure, with one located in each hemisphere of the brain.
Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and produce movement at the joints. They are innervated by efferent motor nerves and sometimes by efferent sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Every movement of the body has to be correct for force, speed, and position.
The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. … The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back.
Dura: The outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. Dura is short for dura mater (from the Latin for hard mother). … An accumulation of blood outside the dura is an epidural hematoma. Subdural means under the dura.
A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the center of the back. It is covered by three thin layers of protective tissue called membranes. The spinal cord and membranes are surrounded by the vertebrae (back bones).
a deep groove that marks the division between the left and right cerebral hemispheres of the brain. At the bottom of the groove, the hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum. Also called interhemispheric fissure; sagittal fissure.
Hippocampus is a complex brain structure embedded deep into temporal lobe. It has a major role in learning and memory. It is a plastic and vulnerable structure that gets damaged by a variety of stimuli. Studies have shown that it also gets affected in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Aerobic activities such as running, cycling, swimming, and even sex, are effective ways of boosting neurogenesis. The aim is getting the heart pumping for more than 20 minutes at a time, and on a regular basis. In this state levels of several growth hormones are elevated in the brain.
Myelination is the process by which brain oligodendrocytes produce layers of myelin that wrap around the neuronal axons and act as a layer of insulation for the transmission of electric action potentials down the neuronal axon.
- decreased blood flow to the brain due to stroke or a chronic condition such as aging.
- traumatic brain injury.
- multiple sclerosis.
- Parkinson’s disease.
- cerebellar diseases.
- acoustic neuromas and other brain tumors.
- Anti-seizure drugs (anticonvulsants)
- Hypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs.
- Anxiolytics (anti-anxiety drugs)
- Antihistamines prescribed to relieve allergy symptoms.
- Aminoglycosides (a type of antibiotic)
The cerebellum is the brain’s locomotion control center. Every time you shoot a basketball, tie your shoe, or chop an onion, your cerebellum fires into action. Found at the base of your brain, the cerebellum is a single layer of tissue with deep folds like an accordion.
Your brain constantly gets signals from your body which detect the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood. Your brain will send signals to the muscles involved in breathing and adjust your breathing rate depending on how active you are.
Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
The prefrontal cortex is a part of the brain located at the front of the frontal lobe. It is implicated in a variety of complex behaviors, including planning, and greatly contributes to personality development.
You can do this by slowing down, taking deep breaths, and refocusing your thoughts. These steps allow your brain’s frontal lobes to take over for the irrational amygdala. When this happens, you have control over your responses, and you won’t be left feeling regret or embarrassment at your behavior.
Herbs and essential oils offer symptom relief, while talk therapy may quiet an aroused amygdala. Healthy food choices of fruits, vegetables and fish can assist the hippocampus. Caring for this condition may need a holistic approach including a variety of treatments.
Thanks to plasticity, your brain can learn new therapeutic and lifestyle practices that work to shrink the amygdala, including: Meditation. A regular 30-minute meditation practice once a day can help reduce the size of the amygdala, which can make it easier for you to think rationally.
Amygdala abnormality has been reported in many psychiatric disorders both in pediatric and adult patient population. Most of these disorders are associated with anxiety, such as general anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder and depression.
Positioned deep within the brain’s medial temporal lobe, the activity of the amygdala is typically measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which isn’t ideal for clinical use due to its high price and low accessibility.
Researchers have found that as we get older, our amygdala reacts less to negative things. It still responds when there’s a real threat but is less likely to get fired up every time a passerby frowns at you.
- Inability to visually recognize surrounding objects.
- The tendency to inspect surrounding objects by smelling or chewing them.
- Irresistible need to explore the surrounding space and excessive reactions to visual stimuli.
- Excessive expression of fear and anger.
The amygdala has a central role in anxiety responses to stressful and arousing situations. Pharmacological and lesion studies of the basolateral, central, and medial subdivisions of the amygdala have shown that their activation induces anxiogenic effects, while their inactivation produces anxiolytic effects.