What were cathedrals used for in the Middle Ages? how were cathedrals built.
Originally castles were made of wood and timber. Later they were replaced with stone to make them stronger. Castles were often built at the top of hills or where they could use some natural features of the land to help with their defense.
Finish with sophisticated defences and high-spec carpentry Until the 12th century, the fortifications of most castles were comprised of earth and timber. While stone buildings predominated thereafter, wood remained a very important material in medieval warfare and fortification.
The first castles were made out of wood. Later, they realized that using stone for the walls would make the castle stronger and better able to stand up against an attack.
Initially, castles were built out of wood, but eventually, people made castles from stone because they were stronger and lasted longer. Castles usually consisted of a group of buildings that were surrounded by a huge wall and a moat designed to keep attackers out.
The first castles were built by the Normans The Normans introduced the first proper castles, starting with the wooden Motte and Bailey castles, to England following their victory at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Medieval castles were built from the 11th century CE for rulers to demonstrate their wealth and power to the local populace, to provide a place of defence and safe retreat in the case of attack, defend strategically important sites like river crossings, passages through hills, mountains and frontiers, and as a place of …
- Stone (so some sort of quarry)
- Wood (some sort of hard wood such as oak)
- Solid ground to build on (I built another one… that fell over and then sank into the swamp.)
A typical European castle was like a little village inside, with kitchens, workshops, gardens, stables, and a chapel. This castle is built of stone, but many early castles were wooden.
Inside the castle walls there might have been a magnificent hall, comfortable chambers and a beautiful chapel. Larger castles had their own fish ponds, orchards and vineyards, as well as gardens which supplied vegetables and herbs. … Most castles had a small private chapel near to the lords chambers.
The first castles were simply ‘mounds‘ of earth, and medieval castle designs improved on these basics – adding ditches in the Motte & Bailey design. As technology advanced – and as attackers got more sophisticated – elaborate concentric castle designs emerged, creating a fortress almost impregnable to its enemies.
The first Norman castles were motte-and-bailey castles, a wooden or stone keep set on an artificial mound called a motte, surrounded by an enclosed courtyard or bailey. This in turn was surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. These fortifications were relatively easy and fast to construct.
The word ‘castle’ derives from the old English word ‘castel’, which meant village. … And now the Oxford English Dictionary defines a castle as ‘a large building, typically of the medieval period, fortified against attack with thick walls, battlements, towers, and often a moat’.
Walls. Walls were generally built of stone within wooden frames designed to hold the stone in place while the mortar dried. For thick walls, the wall was usually constructed with a cavity that was filled with rubble rather than being solid stone.
There were various medieval castle parts that made up a castle which included moats, ramparts, walls, turrets, towers, look outs, and gatehouse.
Historians have interpreted the widespread presence of castles across Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries as evidence that warfare was common, and usually between local lords. Castles were introduced into England shortly before the Norman Conquest in 1066.
Castles could serve as a centre for local government, administration and justice. They were also used by powerful lords to display their wealth and power through lavish architectural styles and decoration. Castles were not only built and used by the crown.
Limestone, Sandstone, and Granite are still sourced and used today for modern buildings just as they were for the Medieval structures that still linger in the landscape today. settle, which might explain why many sandstone castles have needed reinforcement and constant upkeep over the centuries.
The key features of a castle include: Rampart, Dungeon, Portcullis, Moat, Drawbridge and Turret.
Use the links below to read through the information on each of the four different types of Medieval castles; Motte and Bailey, Concentric, Shell Keep and Square Keep.
Castles generally took two to 10 years to build. To learn and understand medieval castle building techniques, let’s look at a modern castle building project.
- 5) Stone brick block. The classic stone brick block is an instant go-to when styling any medieval build, and its design is simple but effective in helping the block fit into almost any surrounding. …
- 4) Cobblestone. …
- 3) Prismarine. …
- 2) Smooth stone.
- Step One: Make two 15 block long walls directly opposite one another.
- Step Two: Build four 3x1x3x1x3x1x3x1 towers at both ends of the first 15 block wall.
- Step Three: Create a two 9 block wall.
- Step Four: Place another two 3x1x3x1x3x1x3x1 towers at the end of both the 9 block walls.
Castles were very difficult to keep clean. There was no running water, so even simple washing tasks meant carrying a lot of bucketfuls of water from a well or stream. Few people had the luxury of being able to bathe regularly; the community was generally more tolerant of smells and dirt.
Life in the early castles was far from comfortable. The wind whistled through the wooden shutters in the windows and most people slept on benches or on rough mattresses in the great hall. By 1200s, castles had well furnished bed chambers and living rooms, heated by large open fires and lit by candles.
The interior walls were usually plastered and painted, often with elaborate frescos and bright, expensive colours. Ultimately, the castle was a symbol of its owner’s wealth and power.
Castle DrogoBuilt forJulius DreweArchitectEdwin LutyensGoverning bodyNational TrustListed Building – Grade I
Initially, most of William’s castles were simple wooden motte-and-bailey constructions, but they were soon converted to highly impressive stone keep castles, complete with the latest Romanesque architecture.
Some castles were built near the sea, so that defenders could see enemies who came by boat. There were holes in the walls of a castle so that the archers could shoot arrows at an enemy. The doors were made out of heavy iron, so it was very difficult to open them.
Generally, they were built of sandstone or limestone, but the whole castle wouldn’t have been made of stone – it was expensive and unwieldy. Costs would have been cut by using wooden roofs, partitions, and supports.
castle, medieval stronghold, generally the residence of the king or lord of the territory in which it stands. … Fortifications built in France in the 10th century often included a high mound encircled by a ditch and surmounted by the leader’s particular stronghold, as in the castles at Blois and Saumur.
The earliest known palaces are those built in Thebes by King Thutmose III (reigned 1504–1450 bce) and by Amenhotep III (reigned 1417–1379 bce) of Egypt.
The three main types of castles are the motte and bailey castle, the stone keep castle, and the concentric castle.
Moats filled with water were usually supplied by a nearby source of water, such as a spring, lake, or river. Dams could be built that would control the level of water in the moat. While some fancy moats may have had stone sides, most moats had simple banks of earth left over from when they were dug.
- Auger – drilling holes in wood.
- Axe – felling small trees or cutting firewood.
- Adaze – cutting slivers from the surface of the wood.
- Basket – holding stone while it was hoisted at a building site.
- Billhook – pruning.
- Cloth Shears – cutting cloth.
In a ground-floor hall the floor was beaten earth, stone or plaster; when the hall was elevated to the upper story the floor was nearly always timber, supported either by a row of wooden pillars in the basement below, as in Chepstow’s Great Hall (shown left), or by stone vaulting.