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MOHENJO-DARO In 1922 Mohenjo-Daro was discovered by R. D. Banerji, two years after major excavations had begun at Harappa, some 366 miles (590 km) to the north. Numerous large-scale excavations were carried out at the site by John Marshall, Ernest Mackay, K. N. Dikshit, and other directors through the 1930s.
The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo daro and Harappa.
|R. D. Banerji|
|Born||12 April 1885 Berhampore, Bengal Presidency, British India (now in West Bengal, India)|
|Died||23 May 1930 (aged 45) Kalighat, Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India (now Kolkata, West Bengal, India)|
|Occupation||Archaeologist, historian, linguist, novelist|
|Known for||Discovering Mohenjo-daro|
Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.
Harappa of India. The vast mounds at Harappa stand on the left bank of the now dry course of the Ravi River in the Punjab. They were excavated between 1920 and 1934 by the Archaeological Survey of India, in 1946 by Wheeler, and in the late 20th century by an American and Pakistani team.
The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920. His work and contemporaneous excavations at Mohenjo-daro first brought to the world’s attention the existence of the forgotten Indus Valley civilization as the earliest urban culture in the Indian subcontinent.
Nine years of extensive excavations at Mohenjo-daro (1922-31)– a city about three miles in circuit–yielded the total of some 37 skeletons, or parts thereof, that can be attributed with some certainty to the period of the Indus civilization.
|Dimensions||17.5 cm × 11 cm (6.9 in × 4.3 in )|
|Location||National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi|
Located on the bank of Indus River in the southern province of Sindh, Mohenjodaro was built around 2400 BC. It was destroyed at least seven times by the floods and rebuilt on the top of ruins each time.
Earlier, in 1921, Rakhal Das Banerjee and Dayaram Sahani discovered the twin cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Soon after, excavations at the two sites brought alive certain facts: the people of Indus valley essentially had uniform city cultures with highly advanced and scientific civic planning.
The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-daro (Mohenjodaro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region. Both sites are in present-day Pakistan, in Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively.
Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni CIE (16 December 1879 – 7 March 1939) was an Indian archaeologist who supervised the excavation of the Indus valley site at Harappa in 1921 and 1922.
Mohenjo Daro likely was, at its time, the greatest city in the world. Roughly 4,500 years ago, as many as 35,000 people lived and worked in the massive city, which occupies 250 acres along Pakistan’s Indus river.
Discovery and Major Excavations Mohenjo-daro was discovered in 1922 by R. D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India, two years after major excavations had begun at Harappa, some 590 km to the north. Large-scale excavations were carried out at the site under the direction of John Marshall, K. N.
The Kalibangan pre-historic site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist (1887–1919). He was doing some research in ancient Indian texts and was surprised by the character of ruins in that area. He sought help from Sir John Marshall of the Archaeological Survey of India.
Dholavira site The site’s excavation between 1990 and 2005 under the supervision of archaeologist Ravindra Singh Bisht uncovered the ancient city, which was a commercial and manufacturing hub for about 1,500 years before its decline and eventual ruin in 1500 BC.
Remembering Sir John Marshall, the legendary archeologist who excavated Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
Sir John Hubert Marshall led an excavation campaign in 1921-1922, during which he discovered the ruins of the city of Harappa. By 1931, the Mohenjo-daro site had been mostly excavated by Marshall and Sir Mortimer Wheeler. By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements of the Indus Civilization were located.
of any of the ancient settlements of the Harappan cultural tradition. Since Sir Alexander Cunningham first excavated at the site in 1872-1873, there have been not fewer than 26 “seasons” of work at the site.
He visited Harappa in 1853, 1856 and in 1872-73 when he carried out a small trial excavation which he discussed in the section on “Harapa” in the ASI Report for the year, which was first published until 1875.
Explanation: The Indus Valley civilization was discovered first in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan. The city lies on the banks of the river Ravi, a left bank tributary of river Indus.
The name Mohenjo-daro is reputed to signify “the mound of the dead.” The archaeological importance of the site was first recognized in 1922, one year after the discovery of Harappa. Subsequent excavations revealed that the mounds contain the remains of what was once the largest city of the Indus civilization.
The discovery of two more mounds in January at the Harappan site of Rakhigarhi in Hisar district, Haryana, has led to archaeologists establishing it as the biggest Harappan civilisation site.
Broadly, three types of graves have been discovered at Harappan sites. In the most common type, known as the primary grave, archaeologists have found full-body remains of the person placed inside a pit. Secondary pits were those that contained partial remains of a few bones placed in the pit.
Just what ended the Indus civilization—and Mohenjo Daro—is also a mystery. Kenoyer suggests that the Indus River changed course, which would have hampered the local agricultural economy and the city’s importance as a center of trade.
Great Bath, ancient structure at Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, an archaeological site featuring ruins of the Indus civilization. The Great Bath dates to the 3rd millennium bce and is believed to have been used for ritual bathing.
Hindu poems called the Rig Veda (from around 1500 BC) describe northern invaders conquering the Indus Valley cities. In the 1940s, archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler discovered 39 human skeletons at Mohenjo-Daro. … It’s more likely that the cities collapsed after natural disasters.
How was Mohenjo-Daro like cities today? The city had advanced urban planning and civil engineering with multiple areas for homes and public spaces. … Few buildings and streets, no city water or public utilities.
Mohenjo-daro (Urdu: موئن جودڑو, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, English: Mound of the dead) was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization built around 2600 BC and is located in the Sindh Province of Pakistan. … It is sometimes referred to as “An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis”.
Scientists from IIT-Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) have uncovered evidence that the Indus Valley Civilization is at least 8,000 years old, and not 5,500 years old, taking root well before the Egyptian (7000BC to 3000BC) and Mesopotamian (6500BC to 3100BC) civilizations.
Over 1400 Indus Valley Civilization sites have been discovered, of which 925 sites are in India and 475 sites in Pakistan, while some sites in Afghanistan are believed to be trading colonies.
Mohanjodaro was excavated in 1922 in Larkana district on the banks of Indus. It was excavated by a team led by R.D. Banerjee.
Archaeologist S.R. Rao led teams who discovered a number of Harappan sites, including the port city of Lothal in 1954-63.
Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]; Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north.
Sir Alexander Cunningham, who led the first excavations there in 1872-73 and published news of the seal, wrote 50 years before we understood that the Indus civilization had existed: “The most curious object discovered at Harappa is a seal, … The seal is a smooth black stone without polish.
Recent claims suggest that Rakigarhi is older (ca. 7000 BCE) than Mohenjo-daro.
The Sumerian civilization is the oldest civilization known to mankind. The term Sumer is today used to designate southern Mesopotamia. In 3000 BC, a flourishing urban civilization existed. The Sumerian civilization was predominantly agricultural and had community life.
This is where the Indus people settled. The first farmers liked living near the river because it kept the land green and fertile for growing crops. These farmers lived together in villages which grew over time into large ancient cities, like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.