Where are coconuts from originally? is coconut a fruit.
One of the organs intimately involved in the coagulation process is the liver. The liver is responsible for the formation of factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XIII, and protein C and S. Factor VII is created by the vascular endothelium.
Plasma and Serum The upper liquid layer, the plasma, consists of 90 percent water along with various substances required for maintaining the body’s pH, osmotic load, and for protecting the body. The plasma also contains the coagulation factors and antibodies.
Coagulation factor VIII is made chiefly by cells in the liver. This protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form, bound to another molecule called von Willebrand factor, until an injury that damages blood vessels occurs.
prothrombin. Prothrombin is transformed into thrombin by a clotting factor known as factor X or prothrombinase; thrombin then acts to transform fibrinogen, also present in plasma, into fibrin, which, in combination with platelets from the blood, forms a clot (a process called coagulation).
The reticuloendothelial cells of the liver are in charge of plasma protein synthesis in adults. The bone marrow, degenerating blood cells, general body tissue cells, and the spleen also contribute to the formation of plasma proteins.
- Factor I – fibrinogen.
- Factor II – prothrombin.
- Factor III – tissue thromboplastin (tissue factor)
- Factor IV – ionized calcium ( Ca++ )
- Factor V – labile factor or proaccelerin.
- Factor VI – unassigned.
- Factor VII – stable factor or proconvertin.
Polymeric fibrin forms a clot with platelets at the wound site. Therefore, the protein required for blood coagulation is fibrinogen.
Coagulation factor VII (FVII) is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that is mainly produced by the liver. FVII is crucially involved in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
Coagulation factor IX is made in the liver. This protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form until an injury that damages blood vessels occurs.
Factor VII is synthesized in the liver and secreted as a single-chain glycoprotein of 48 kd. The epidermal growth factor domain has a calcium ion – binding site that to some degree mediates interaction with the tissue factor exposed at the site of vessel injury.
Heparin, a natural anticoagulant, is formed in the body. The source of commercial heparin is the mucous membranes of pig intestine and ox lungs [1–5]. Heparin is a mixture of natural sulfated mucopolysaccharides, which are generally found in granules of mast cells.
Fibrinogen is an abundant protein synthesized in the liver, present in human blood plasma at concentrations ranging from 1.5-4 g/L in healthy individuals with a normal half-life of 3-5 days. With fibrin, produced by thrombin-mediated cleavage, fibrinogen plays important roles in many physiological processes.
Prothrombin (factor II) is a soluble 72-kDa protein that is produced by the liver. It is activated to thrombin (factor IIa) via enzymatic cleavage of two sites by activated FX (FXa). Activated thrombin leads to cleavage of fibrinogen into fibrin monomers that, upon polymerization, form a fibrin clot.
Dissolved gases Plasma also contains dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, in small amounts, as well as a significant amount of nitrogen.
Synthesis of albumin takes place in the liver, after which it is excreted into the bloodstream. Albumin can be found in the bloodstream, interstitial space, as well as other fluids.
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the soft, spongy material in the center of the bones. It produces about 95% of the body’s blood cells. Most of the adult body’s bone marrow is in the pelvic bones, breast bone, and the bones of the spine.
Coagulation factors are proteins in the blood that help control bleeding. You have several different coagulation factors in your blood. When you get a cut or other injury that causes bleeding, your coagulation factors work together to form a blood clot. The clot stops you from losing too much blood.
Cell fragments called platelets are essential to promote blood clotting. Researchers have now discovered novel molecular interactions at the surface of platelets that control blood clotting. Cell fragments called platelets are essential to promote blood clotting.
Vitamin K is a group of vitamins that the body needs for blood clotting, helping wounds to heal.
The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets, as well as deposition and maturation of fibrin. Coagulation begins almost instantly after an injury to the endothelium lining a blood vessel.
In human, the F9 gene is located on the X chromosome at position q27. 1.
Prothrombin is a protein in the blood that is required for the blood to clot. It is also called factor II. Blood clots are composed of a combination of blood platelets and a meshwork of the blood clotting protein fibrin.
Autoimmune Clotting Dysfunction Factor VII (FVII) is a serine protease composed of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains, and a protease domain. FVII binds to tissue factor (TF) and is activated by thrombin, FXIa, FXII, and FXa.
Factor XI deficiency is a disorder that can cause abnormal bleeding due to a shortage (deficiency) of the factor XI protein, which is involved in blood clotting. This condition is classified as either partial or severe based on the degree of deficiency of the factor XI protein.
Hemophilia B, also known as factor IX deficiency or Christmas disease, is the second most common type of hemophilia. The disorder was first reported in the medical literature in 1952 in a patient with the name of Stephen Christmas.
Hemophilia B is also known as Christmas disease. It is named after the first person to be diagnosed with the disorder in 1952, Stephen Christmas. As the second most common type of hemophilia, it occurs in about 1 in 25,000 male births and affects about 4,000 individuals in the United States.
Sources of Vitamin K Vitamin K is found in a number of foods, including leafy greens, cauliflower and, if you consider it a food, liver. However, the chief source of vitamin K is synthesis by bacteria in the large intestine, and in most cases, absence of dietary vitamin K is not at all deleterious.
The liver plays a key role in blood coagulation, being involved in both primary and secondary hemostasis. It is the site of synthesis of all coagulation factors and their inhibitors, except for von Willebrand factor (vWF).
Heparin is made by the liver, lungs, and other tissues in the body and can also made in the laboratory. Heparin may be injected into muscle or blood to prevent or break up blood clots. It is a type of anticoagulant.
Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) provide effective anticoagulation and have been the mainstay of anticoagulation therapy for more than 50 years.
Production. Pharmaceutical-grade heparin is derived from mucosal tissues of slaughtered meat animals such as porcine (pig) intestines or bovine (cattle) lungs. Advances to produce heparin synthetically have been made in 2003 and 2008.
Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a fibrous, non-globular protein involved in the clotting of blood. It is formed by the action of the protease thrombin on fibrinogen, which causes it to polymerize. The polymerized fibrin, together with platelets, forms a hemostatic plug or clot over a wound site.
Factor XIII, also known by the name fibrin stabilizing factor, is a key clotting factor in the coagulation cascade known for stabilizing the formation of a blood clot.
Prothrombin is an inactive precursor that is converted to thrombin by the action of factor Xa in the presence of factor V, phospholipid and calcium ions (seeFig. 29.1).
Thrombin is a naturally occurring enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which is an integral step in clot formation.
Prothrombin (factor II) is a vitamin K–dependent plasma protein synthesized in the liver.