(ˈbækˌʃɔr, -ˌʃour) noun Geology. the zone of the shore or beach above the high-water line, acted upon only by severe storms or exceptionally high tides. the area immediately adjacent to a sea cliff. 3.
Which is an aquatic? which is an aquatic ecosystem.


What is a backshore area?

Backshore. The part of the beach lying between the beach face and coastline. The backshore is dry under normal conditions; it is often characterised by berms. Vegetation is generally sparse or absent. The backshore is only exposed to waves under extreme events with high tide and storm surge.

What features are found in the backshore of a coast?

In the transition between foreshore and backshore, cusps may be present. The major forms of the backshore are berms, beach ridges, wind ripples, and washover fans.

What is beach gradient?

Shingle beaches typically have a steep gradient (over 10˚) because the waves easily flow through the coarse, porous surface of the beach, decreasing the effect of backwash erosion and increasing the formation of sediment into a steep sloping back.

What is a beach compartment?

Beach compartment. A series of rivers, beaches, and submarine canyons involved in the movement of sediment to the coast, along the coast, and down one or more submarine canyons.

What is the swash zone?

Definition of Swash zone: The zone where wave bores run up the beach. It extends from the limit of run-down to the limit of wave run-up.

What is an outbuilding coastline?

Where deposition > erosion there is a net gain of sediment and the coastline advances — an outbuilding coastline. Advancing/Retreating. Coastlines are classified as advancing or retreating due to long-term processes (emergent/submergent) and short term (outbuilding/eroding).

What are Subaerial processes?

Sub-aerial processes refer to the processes of weathering and mass movement. Weathering is the breaking down of rock in situ. It can be divided into mechanical and chemical weathering. Mechanical weathering refers to physical processes like freeze-thaw action and biological weathering.

What happens on a swash aligned beach?

Swash Aligned Coasts: are produced where the waves break in line (parallel) with the coast. Swash and backwash movements move material up and down the beach producing many coastal features. Swash aligned beaches are smoothly curved, concave beaches.

Why are large pebbles found at the top of the beach?

Sandy beaches are usually found in bays where the water is shallow and the waves have less energy. Pebble beaches often form where cliffs are being eroded, and where there are higher energy waves.

How do you find the gradient of a beach?

Groyne measurements Use a tape measure to find the height of beach material on either side of a groyne. Measure in at least three heights along the beach profile for each groyne. You can compare a series of groynes along a length of beach. Beach material is higher on one side of the groyne.

What is a terrace on a beach formed in the Backshore above the water level at high tide known as?

berm, terrace of a beach that has formed in the backshore, above the water level at high tide. Berms are commonly found on beaches that have fairly coarse sand and are the result of the deposition of material by low-energy waves.

What does a steeper beach mean?

Clearly, some beaches are steeper than others. This affects the waves that break on them; for example, steeper beaches tend to have steeper, more powerful waves because the sudden depth change makes the waves dissipate their energy more quickly over a shorter distance.

What are the three parts of a beach compartment?

Each cell or compartment consists of 1) sources of beach sand (rivers, streams and some bluff erosion along California’s coast); 2) littoral drift or longshore transport, driven by waves typically coming from the northwest, which move sand southward along most of the California coastline; and 3) sinks, or places where …

What is a sediment compartment?

Sediment compartments are spatial units along the coast, based on sediment movement and coastal types. Use for long-term strategic. plans and large-scale. engineering works, such as. marinas.

What is longshore sediment transport?

Longshore transport refers to the cumulative movement of beach and nearshore sand parallel to the shore by the combined action of tides, wind, and waves and the shore-parallel currents produced by them.

What is a swash beach?

Swash, or forewash in geography, is a turbulent layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken. The swash action can move beach materials up and down the beach, which results in the cross-shore sediment exchange. … Greater swash generally occurs on flatter beaches.

What is the swash zone quizlet?

If you are wading on the edge of the ocean where the waves move in and out, you are probably in the swash zone. … What characteristic of waves increases as they hit the coastline?

What processes dominate in the swash zone?

The beach slope is a controlling parameter. On dissipative beaches, with wide surf zones, most of the wind wave and swell energy is dissipated seaward of the swash zone. Therefore, swash processes are dominated by those due to long, or infragravity waves, which are frequently non-breaking standing waves (figure 2a).

What is meant by coastal deposition?

When the sea loses energy, it drops the sand, rock particles and pebbles it has been carrying. This is called deposition. Deposition happens when the swash is stronger than the backwash and is associated with constructive waves.

What is the definition of deposition in geography?

Deposition is the laying down of sediment carried by wind, flowing water, the sea or ice. Sediment can be transported as pebbles, sand and mud, or as salts dissolved in water.

How is a beach formed geography?

When the sea erodes the cliffs, large rocks fall away and into the sea. These rocks are tossed about by the action of the sea and they are eroded into smaller and smaller pebbles. The pebbles are eventually ground down into the tiny gains of sand that form a beach.

What does Subaerial mean geography?

Sub-aerial process are land-based processes which alter the shape of the coastline. These are a combination of weathering and mass movement.

What is the influence of subaerial processes on coastal landforms?

Sub-aerial processes include weathering and mass movement. These processes operate on the cliff face to weaken it and provide material for coastal erosion.

What does Subaerial mean in geology?

Definition of subaerial : situated, formed, or occurring on or immediately adjacent to the surface of the earth subaerial erosion subaerial roots.

Is Chesil Beach swash aligned?

Chesil Beach in Dorset is a shingle beach which has a swash alignment shaped largely by south-westerly swell and storm waves, but longshore drifting occurs on such beaches when westerly waves move sediment south-eastward and when south-easterly waves move it back westward.

How do you describe a beach profile?

A beach profile shows the cross-sectional shape of a beach, usually from the edge of the sea to the base of the cliff. To create a beach profile follow a straight transect line from the edge of the sea to the end of the active beach.

How do ridges and Runnels form?

Ridge and runnel systems are formed due to the interaction of tides, currents, sediments and the beach topography. They will only form on shallow gradient beaches. They form as a simple drainage routes for incoming and outgoing tides. Water flows in and out via the runnel, creating a hollow channel.

Where do pebbles on the beach come from?

Pebbles are usually, but not always, formed from a naturally occurring rock that has been worn smooth by the action of water on beaches, lakes and rivers. There are also pebbles formed from artificial material such as concrete, bricks and glass.

Why would a large beach form in a bay?

Beaches. Beaches are made up from eroded material that has been transported from elsewhere and then deposited by the sea. For this to occur, waves must have limited energy, so beaches often form in sheltered areas like bays . Constructive waves build up beaches as they have a strong swash and a weak backwash .

Why are pebble beaches steep?

Formation. Shingle beaches are typically steep, because the waves easily flow through the coarse, porous surface of the beach, decreasing the effect of backwash erosion and increasing the formation of sediment into a steeply sloping beach.

How is beach sediment size measured?

Use calipers or a ruler to measure the size of each pebble – you can measure the length of the longest side – The a-axis, or all three axes, a, b and c. For very small sediment you will not be able to measure the size of individual pebbles – in this case you will need to use a grain chart size card.

How does sediment size affect beach morphology?

Beach Morphology and Sediment Profiles Constructive waves alter beach morphology by causing net movement of sediment up the beach, steeping the beach profile. Swash carries sediment of all sizes up the beach, but weaker backwash can only transport smaller particles down the beach.

How is coastal erosion rate measured?

Thanks to technological advancement environmental scientists can now use airborne, satellite and on-land remote sensing equipment to monitor coastal erosion. These include microwave sensors, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging, GPS and airborne light detection and ranging technology (LIDAR).

Is by definition a wave caused by ocean tides?

The gravitational pull of the sun and moon on the earth also causes waves. These waves are tides or, in other words, tidal waves. It is a common misconception that a tidal wave is also a tsunami.

What Sandy beach feature separates the foreshore from the Backshore?

Lower shoreface. The shoreface is the part of the barrier where the ocean meets the shore of the island. The barrier island body itself separates the shoreface from the backshore and lagoon/tidal flat area. Characteristics common to the lower shoreface are fine sands with mud and possibly silt.

What is a high tide beach?

A high tide is when the ocean is at its fullest point on the beach. On the beach, we notice that there isn’t much sand to walk on and the waves are breaking close to the shore or at the top of the beach.

Are summer beaches steeper?

Winter beaches are generally steeper and narrower, while in the summer beach, smaller, calmer waves dominate, and beaches are generally wider and have a gradual slope.

What creates a steep beach profile?

Where backwash is larger than swash more material is being eroded from the beach profile than is being accumulated. This carries material out to sea and makes for a steeper beach profile. These waves are called DESTRUCTIVE WAVES which have steeper profiles, larger and higher wave crests and come more frequently.

What is a foreshore in geography?

Beside the sea, a lake, or a wide river, the foreshore is the part of the shore which is between the highest and lowest points reached by the water.

What do you find at the end of a beach compartment?

Each compartment consists of several rivers that deliver sand to the beach, net southerly longshore transport of sand along the beach, and a submarine canyon at the south end of each compartment that removes sand from the beach.