As one of the primary movers in spine flexion, the rectus abdominis
Which is the strongest jet stream? where are jet streams located.


Which muscle is the main flexor of the vertebral column?

Quadratus LumborumLateral flexion of vertebral column
InterspinalesExtends vertebral column
Intertransversarii MedialesLateral flexion of vertebral column
MultifidusExtends & rotates vertebral column
What is flexion of the vertebral column?

For the vertebral column, flexion (anterior flexion) is an anterior (forward) bending of the neck or body, while extension involves a posterior-directed motion, such as straightening from a flexed position or bending backward. Lateral flexion is the bending of the neck or body toward the right or left side.

What are the flexors of the spine?

The flexor muscles are attached to the front of the spine and enable flexing, bending forward, lifting, and arching the lower back. The oblique muscles are attached to the sides of the spine and help rotate the spine and maintain proper posture.

What is the main flexor of the lumbar spine?

Flexors of the L-spine are divided into an iliothoracic (extrinsic) group and a femorospinal (intrinsic) group. The iliothoracic group is made up of the abdominal wall muscles: rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal obliquus, and the transversus abdominis.

Which section of the vertebral column is capable of the most movement?

Which section of the vertebral column is capable of the most movement?Cervical
The most lateral branch of the Erector Spinalis group is the?Ilicostalis
In the lumbar region, the erectors lie deep to what connective tissue structure?Thoracolumbar Aponeurosis
What muscles perform lateral flexion of the vertebral column?

The quadratus lumborum aids in lateral flexion of the vertebral column.

What is excessive flexion?

Too much spinal flexion, or spinal flexion that is loaded—either because you’re carrying something with a substantial amount of weight, or you’re twisting your spine as you bend—may negatively affect your intervertebral discs. It may even cause a herniated disc injury.

Which of the following is the exaggerated convex curvature of the vertebral column?

Kyphosis, also referred to as humpback or hunchback, is an excessive posterior curvature of the thoracic region. This can develop when osteoporosis causes weakening and erosion of the anterior portions of the upper thoracic vertebrae, resulting in their gradual collapse (Figure 7.22).

Why the vertebral column is curved?

Vertebral column is curved or ‘S-shaped’ to maintain the balance of the body in an erect position. The curve absorbs pressure and shock while walking, running and protects the column from breaking.

What is vertebral column?

(ver-TEE-brul KAH-lum) The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The vertebral column encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spinal column, and spine.

What muscles attach to the vertebral column?

The two main muscle groups that affect the spine are extensors and flexors. The extensor muscles enable us to stand up and lift objects. The extensors are attached to the back of the spine. The flexor muscles are in the front and include the abdominal muscles.

What is sacral vertebra?

The sacral vertebrae—also called the sacral spine—consists of five sacral vertebrae bones. These bones fuse together to form the sacrum, the shield-shaped bony structure located at the base of the lumbar vertebrae (the five cylindrical bones forming the spine of the lower bank) and connected to the pelvis.

What limits lumbar flexion?

The iliolumbar ligaments play an important role in the stability of the lumbosacral junction by restricting both side flexion and rotational movement at the L5–S1 joint and forward sliding of L5 on the sacrum.

What causes flexion of the lumbar vertebral column?

TRUNK FLEXION The major actions involved are bilateral activity of the rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique, and psoas major. During lower back flexion or extension, there is far less vertebral gliding than seen in other areas of the spine during A-P motion.

What is Atlas vertebra?

atlas: the first cervical vertebra (C1), lying directly under the skull, through which the head articulates with the neck. The main connection to the vertebra below is a pivot around the odontoid process that is an upward projection of the body of the second cervical vertebra.

What is the most vulnerable area of the spine?

The most vulnerable areas of the spine are the lumbar (lower back), and the cervical (neck) regions. They are the most mobile, and susceptible to injury. The lower back is also the main weight bearing part of the spine. The spine is supported by muscles and ligaments.

Which part of the spine has the most rotation?

Rotation is greatest at the specialized atlantoaxial articulations, and to a lesser degree in the cervical and lumbar spine.

Which part of the spine is most susceptible to injury?

The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebral bones that form a lordotic curve (same as the cervical spine) and run through the lower back. The lumbar spine is more mobile than the thoracic spine yet also carries more weight, making it the most likely region of the spine to become injured and painful.

Which muscles can flex the cervical vertebral column?

The scalene muscles help with neck flexion and side bending. The deep cervical flexors are a muscle group consisting of the longus capitus and longus colli muscles, which run down the front of the cervical spine. The deep cervical flexor muscles help flex the neck forward as well as stabilize the cervical spine.

What muscles flex the elbow?

Brachialis: upper arm muscle beneath the biceps which flexes the elbow towards the body. Brachioradialis: forearm muscle that flexes, straightens and pulls the arm at the elbow.

What is plantar flexion?

Plantar flexion is the movement that allows you to press the gas pedal of your car. It also allows ballet dancers to stand on their toes. The term plantar flexion refers to the movement of the foot in a downward motion away from the body. … The ankle joint, which is actually two joints, makes plantar flexion possible.

What is lateral flexion of the spine?

Movement of a body part to the side is called lateral flexion. This type of movement is commonly associated with the neck and spine. For example, when you move your head toward one of your shoulders or bend your body sideways, you’re performing a lateral flexion.

What abnormal curvature of the spine has Ventrally exaggerated lumbar curvature?

Lordosis, or swayback, is an increased curvature in the lumbar (middle-to-lower) region of the vertebral column, and it may be associated with spondylolisthesis, inflammation of the intervertebral disk, or obesity.

What are vertebral column extenders?

Extension (or hyperextension) of the trunk is caused by the back muscles around the vertebral column. These deep muscles of the back form a broad, thick column which extend from the sacrum up to the skull. The largest of these muscles is the erector spinae.

What is a convex curvature of the spine?

Kyphosis (Curvature of the Spines) The thoracic region of the spine has a “C”-shaped convexity; an exaggeration of which results in a condition called kyphosis. Kyphosis is characterized by an abnormal spinal curvature, which causes a physical deformity of the upper back commonly known as hunchback.

What is the most superior bone of the vertebral column?

The cervical vertebrae are the smallest and most superior of the vertebrae. The most superior of these vertebrae articulate with the skull.

What are the 4 major curves of the vertebrae?

There are four natural curves in the spinal column. The cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral curvature.

Why vertebral column is not straight?

It may not be what your mother told you, but the spine is not meant to be straight. Because of its position, the spine has to take pressure, weight, and force from structures that, by comparison, tend to be heavier and bulkier. An example is your pelvis, which is a large bone into which the spine wedges.

What is vertebral column Class 9?

It is also known as the vertebral column. The vertebral column is a part of the axial skeleton, which comprises the skull, ribs and sternum other than the vertebral column. … Each vertebra has a central hollow portion, which forms the neural canal through which the spinal cord passes. The spine protects the spinal cord.

What is the vertebral column made up of?

Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord The vertebral column (VC) is composed of 33 vertebrae [cervical (C), 7; thoracic (T), 5; lumbar (L), 5; sacral (S), 5; coccygeal, 4], which are interconnected by intervertebral (IV) disks (except C1, C2) and stabilized by spinal ligaments.

What is vertebral column Class 6?

The vertebral column is also known as the backbone or spine and it is the part of the axial skeleton. … The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord.

Which muscle S of the vertebral column attaches to the iliac crest and Iliolumbar ligament?

Quadratus lumborum muscleOriginPosterior border of iliac crestInsertionInferior border of 12th rib and L1-L5ArteryLumbar arteries, lumbar branch of iliolumbar arteryNerveThe twelfth thoracic and first through fourth ventral rami of lumbar nerves (T12, L1-L4)

What muscle attaches to the transverse process of the vertebrae?

One of these muscles is the psoas muscle, which controls the forward bending motion of the upper body and thighs. This muscle attaches to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and the 12th thoracic vertebra.

Which muscle will elevate the scapula?

The elevation is accomplished by the trapezius, levator scapulae, and rhomboid muscles. Depression is accomplished through the force of gravity and the actions of the latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior, pectoralis major and minor, and the trapezius muscles.

Where is S3 in the spine?

The sacral spinal nerve 3 (S3) is a spinal nerve of the sacral segment. It originates from the spinal column from below the 3rd body of the sacrum.

What is spiral cord?

A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the center of the back. It is covered by three thin layers of protective tissue called membranes. The spinal cord and membranes are surrounded by the vertebrae (back bones).

Where is S4 on the spine?

The sacral spinal nerve 4 (S4) is a spinal nerve of the sacral segment.

Why is anterior longitudinal ligament stronger?

While anteriorly the ligament is thin due to the elastic fibers, the posterior capsule of each posterior joint is thicker due to the collagenous content.

Which type of force can resist the facet joint?

The bony articular pillars support compressive loads and the facet capsular ligament resists tensile forces that are developed across the joint when it undergoes rotations and translations [1,6,21].

What limits thoracic flexion?

The positioning of the ribs and spinous processes greatly limits flexion and extension of the thoracic vertebrae.