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Under what circumstances are corporations bound to contracts made by their promoters prior to incorporation?
Somebody has to set up the company and, in order to set up a company, there have to be promoters. The promoters will purchase property from which the company is going to operate and undertake the preliminary steps to set the company up.
A corporate promoter is a firm or person who does the preliminary work related to the formation of a company, including its promotion, incorporation, and flotation, and solicits people to invest money in the company, usually when it is being formed.
“Promoter is the person who assembles the men, the money and the materials into a going concern.” Legal Position of a Promoter is that he is not an agent or trustee of the company. Promoter has a fiduciary relationship with the company which is based on trust and confidence.
Promoters are generally held personally liable for pre-incorporation contract. If a company does not ratify or adopt a pre-incorporation contract under the Specific Relief Act, then the common law principle would be applicable and the promoter will be liable for breach of contract.
Promoters hold the shares of a company. Anyone can be a promoter of the company, its not necessary that a promoter is a directors. Directors are the managers of company who manage the day to day operations of the company. It is not necessary that the directors are the promoters of the company.
A person who acts in a professional capacity is not a promoter. Thus a solicitor, who prepares on behalf of the promoters the primary documents of the proposed company, is not a promoter. Similarly an accountant or a valuer who helps the promotion in his professional capacity is not a promoter.
SEBI regulations allow companies to have zero promoter holding according. The SEBI regulations require a minimum 25 per cent of public shareholding but there is no legal requirement of minimum promoter group holding.
Promoter is any component added to a catalyst to increase activity or selectivity. Examples are tin added to platinum reforming catalysts to improve selectivity to coke formation and chloride added to isomerization catalysts to increase activity.
Professional Promoters: These are the persons who specialise in promotion of companies. They hand over the companies to shareholders when the business starts.
Categories of Company Promoter A promoter may perhaps be an individual, a firm, and an association of persons or a company. The promoters may perhaps be professional, occasional, financial or managing promoters. A professional promoter gives away the company to the shareholders when the company starts.
In law, promoters are not entitled to remuneration for incorporating a company for the simple reason that the company did not engage their services. However, promoters may be rewarded in other ways: acting as commission agents. … upon disclosure, a promoter is free to sell overvalued assets to the company for a profit.
Meaning. A pre-incorporation contract is an agreement that is made by a person at the behest of a company or corporation that does not exist at the time of signing such agreement. These agreements are entered into as there are preliminary contracts and expenses incurred before an organization takes form.
U/s 19 (e), Except as otherwise provided by this Chapter, specific performance of a contract may be enforced against the company, when the promoters of a company have, before its incorporation, entered into a contract for the purpose of the company and such contract is warranted by the terms of the incorporation.
A corporation is bound by a contract made on its behalf by its promoters or agents before its incorporation, if after it is organized, and with full knowledge of all the facts, it assumes the contract and agrees to pay the consideration, or accepts and retains the benefits of the contract, provided the contract is one …
They invest in the company and are technically its owners. A promoter may also become the shareholders if they retain any share in the company which was initially subscribed by them through the Memorandum of Association (hereinafter referred to as ‘MOA’) of the company.
Promoters are the individuals who are directors in the company and who have started the company. Investors need not to directors and need not be the ones who started the company. Typically the promoters come up with the idea to start the company and the investors come in later to invest money to scale the idea.
Stock promoters are individuals or organizations responsible for raising capital for a client company through various marketing strategies.
If it has no identifiable promoter, the board, shareholders and the articles of association would be the guiding factors.” SEBI rules require that promoters should hold at least 20 per cent of the post- public issue capital and this should be locked in for at least three years.
- 1) Using money of the company (public shareholders) to increase promoters’ stake in the company.
- 2) Using employee welfare trusts to display a higher shareholding of promoters than their actual shareholding.
Promoter holding increases All prominent shareholders, including promoters, have a vested interested in speaking well about their company and its future prospects. In this manner, they can influence prospective investors to invest in the shares of their company, thus increasing its price, and consequently their wealth.
S.No.NameROCE %1.3M India9.322.A B B7.223.A B M Internatl.66.354.Aaron Industries16.57
A promoter is a sequence of DNA needed to turn a gene on or off. The process of transcription is initiated at the promoter. Usually found near the beginning of a gene, the promoter has a binding site for the enzyme used to make a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule.
A promoter is a supporter, advocate, or booster for a person, group, or event. A promoter is an active supporter of something. A promoter of democracy, for example, is someone who tries to spread democracy throughout the world.
A promoter is someone, who has been connected with the business from the start. He can also be referred to as the starter of a business or the founder. He is responsible for raising capital from various sources and entering into the first agreements for the start of a business and incorporation of a company.
A promoter is a person or group of people who comes together with an idea for setting-up a business at a particular place and incorporates a company to achieve it. By the process called incorporation, a company comes into existence. A promoter can be an individual, an association or people, a company or a firm.
The promoters are entitled to receive all the expenses incurred for in setting up and registering the company, from Board of Directors. The articles will have provision for payment of preliminary expenses to the promoters.
The promoter is obligated to bring the company into the legal existence and to ensure its successful running, and in order to accomplish his obligation, he may enter into some contract on behalf of the prospective company. These types of contract are called ‘Pre-incorporation Contract’.
The simple reason behind it is that before incorporation company do no has any legal existence before incorporation, and if the ‘association of persons’ enters into an agreement in the name of company before incorporation; the agreement would be void ab initio.
PRE-INCORPORATION CONTRACTS. Are contracts purported to be made on behalf of the company before its incorporation. Pre-incorporation contract is defined in Section 72 as “any contract or other transaction purporting to be entered into by the company or by any person on behalf of the company prior to its formation”.